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The United States Code (Title 17, Chapter 1, Section 107) defines the "fair use" of copyrighted work as that which, among other considerations, is for nonprofit educational purposes, e.g., teaching, scholarship, or research. Such usage is not considered to be an infringement of copyright. The intention has been to abide by that definition in the construction of these pages.

Illustrations and photographs have been identified and a complete citation given in the list of references. Unattributed photographs are my own. If one is to be displayed elsewhere, do please ask; permission is readily given. Most were taken in 2007, 2008, 2012, 2013, 2015, and 2017. Older, lower resolution pictures from England, France, and Spain can be recognized by their frames and smaller format.

The copyright for the Encyclopaedia Romana extends to the presentation of the site, itself, its essays and original photography. As the work of others has been recognized and cited in these narrative essays on Roman history and culture, so it is hoped that those readers who utilize the Encyclopaedia will acknowledge its authorship, in turn, and discover for themselves the sources which have made these pages possible.

A reference should provide sufficient information to allow the reader to locate the original source material. In referencing the Encyclopaedia Romana, one appropriate format is that of The Modern Language Association (MLA), which looks like this—

Grout, James. "The Hippodrome at Constantinople." Encyclopaedia Romana. n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2010. <>.

or in the style of The American Psychological Association (APA)

Grout, J. (n.d.). The Hippodrome at Constantinople. Encyclopaedia Romana. Retrieved December 13, 2010, from

or The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS)—

Grout, James. "The Hippodrome at Constantinople." Encyclopaedia Romana, accessed December 13, 2010,

Note that n.d. indicates "no date," which is to say that the essays have no publication date other than that of the website itself (in much the same way that the copyright date of a book extends to its individual chapters). Given that the site is revised on a regular basis, the current copyright year also can be indicated in lieu of n.d.