Philemon Holland, translator (1601): C. Plinius Secundus The Historie of the World. Book I. (Unnumbered pages 1-)
THE INVENTORIE OR INDEX,
CONTAINING THE CONTENTS OF XXXVII
BOOKES, TOVCHING THE HISTORIE OF NATVRE,
WRITTEN BY C. PLINIVS SECVNDVS, WHICH IS RECEI-
VED FOR THE FIRST BOOKE OF THEM.
He first Booke containeth the Dedicatorie Epistle or Preface of the worke, addressed to Titus Vespasian the Emperour. Also the names of the Authors out of which he gathered the Historie, which he prosecuteth in 36 Bookes: togither with the Summarie of every Chapter: & beginneth, The Books, &c.
The second, treateth of the World, Elements, and Starres, and beginneth thus, The world, &c.
The third, describeth the first and second gulfe, which the Mediterranean sea maketh in Europe: and beginneth in this manner, Hitherto, &c.
The fourth, compriseth the third gulfe of Europe, beginning, The third, &c.
The fift, containeth the description of Affrick, and beginneth thus, Africk, &c.
The sixt, handleth the Cosmographie of Asia, beginning thus, The sea called, &c.
The seventh treateth of man, and his inventions, beginning, Thus as you see, &
The eight sheweth unto us, land creatures, and their kinds, and beginneth after this manner, Passe we now, &c.
The ninth, laieth before us all fishes, and creatures of the water, beginning in this wise, I have thus showed, &c.
The tenth speakes of flying fouls and birds, and beginneth thus, It followeth, &c.
The eleventh telleth us of Insects, and beginneth thus, It remaineth now, &c.
The twelfth treateth of drugs & odoriferous plants, beginning, Thus you, &c.
The thirteenth describeth straunge and forreine trees: beginning with these words, Thus far forth, &c.
The fourteenth sheweth of vine-plants, &c. beginning thus, Thus far forth, &c.
The fifteenth comprehendeth all fruitfull trees, thus beginning, There were, &c.
The sixteenth describeth unto us all wild trees, beginning with, Hitherto, &c.
The seventeenth containeth tame trees with hortyards, and beginneth with these words, As touching the nature, &c.
The eighteenth booke treateth of the nature of corne, and all sorts thereof, togither with the profession of husbandmen, and agriculture, beginning after this manner, Now followeth, &c.
The ninteenth discourseth of Flax, Spart, and Gardenage, beginning after this manner, In the former book, &c.
The twentieth sheweth of garden herbs, good to serve both the kitchin for meat, and the Apothecaries shop for medicine, & beginneth thus, Now will we, &c.
The one and twentie treateth of flours & garlands, and beginneth, In Cato, &c.
The two and twentie containeth the chaplets and medecines made of hearbs, with this beginning, Such is the perfection, &c.
The three and twentie sheweth the medicinable vertues of wine, and tame trees growing in hortyards, beginning thus, Thus have we, &c.
The foure and twentie declareth the properties of wild trees serving in physick, beginning, thus, Nature, &c.
The five and twentie treateth of the hearbs in the field comming up of their own accord, and thus beginning, The excellencie, &c.
The six and twentie sheweth of many new and straunge maladies, the medicinable vertues also of certaine hearbs, according to sundrie diseases, beginning thus, The verie face, &c.
The seven and twentie goeth forward to certaine other hearbs and their medecines, and thus beginneth, Certes, &c.
The eight and twentie setteth downe certaine receits of remedies in physicke, drawne from out of man and other bigger creatures, and it beginneth in this manner, Heretofore, &c.
The nine and twentie treateth of the first authours and inventors oof Physicke, also of medecines taken frmo other creatures, & beginneth, The nature, &c.
The thirtith booke speaketh of Magicke, and certaine medecines appropriat to the parts and members of mans bodie, beginning thus, The vanitie, &c.
The one and thirtie containeth the medicinable vertues of fishes & water creatures, with this beginning, Now followeth, &c.
The two and thirtie sheweth other properties of fishes, &c. and beginneth in this manner, Now we are come, &c.
The three and thirtie treateth of gold and silver mines, and hath this beginning, Time it is, &c.
The foure and thirtie speaketh of copper and brasse mines, also of lead, also of excellent brasse-founders and workemen in copper, beginning after this manner, In the next place, &c.
The five and thirtie discourseth of painting, colour, and painters, beginning in this sort, The discourse, &c.
The six and thirtie treateth of marble and stone for building, and hath this beginning, It remaineth, &c..
The seven and thirtie concludeth with pretious stones, and beginneth at these words, To the end that, &c.
|1.||Whether the World bee finite and limited within certaine dimensions or no? whether there be many, or but one?||56.||Of monstrous and prodigious showres of raine, namely of milke, bloud, flesh, yron, wooll, bricke, and tyle.|
|2.||The forme and figure of Heaven and the World.||57.||The rattling of harnesse and armour: the sound also of trumpets heard from heaven.|
|3.||The motion of heaven.||58.||Of stones falling from heaven.|
|4.||Why the world is called Mundus?||59.||Of the Rainbow.|
|5.||Of the Elements.||60.||Of Haile, Snow, Frost, Mists, and Dew.|
|6.||Of the seven Planets.||61.||Of divers formes and shapes represented in clowds.|
|7.||Concerning God.||62.||The particular properties of the skie in certaine places.|
|8.||The nature of fixed starres and planets: their course and revolution.||63.||The nature of the Earth.|
|9.||The nature of the Moone.||64.||The forme and figure of the earth.|
|10.||The eclipse of Sun and Moone: also of the night.||65.||Of the Antipodes: and whether there bee any such. Also, as touching the roundesse of the water.|
|11.||The bignesse of starrs.||66.||How the water resteth upon the earth.|
|12.||Divers inventions of men and their observations touching the cœlestiall bodies.||67.||Of Seas and rivers navigable.|
|13.||Of Eclipses.||68.||What parts of the earth be habitable.|
|14.||The motion of the Moone.||69.||That the earth is in the mids of the world.|
|15.||Generall rules or canons touching planets or lights.||70.||From whence proceedeth the inequalitie observed in the rising and elevation of the stars. Of the eclipse: where it is, & wherfore.|
|16.||The reason why the same planets seeme higher or lower at sundrie times.||71.||The reason of the day-light upon earth.|
|17.||Generall rules concerning the planets or wandring stars.||72.||A discourse thereof according to the Gnomon: also of the first Sun-dyall.|
|18.||What is the cause that planets change their colours?||73.||In what places and at what times there are no shadows cast.|
|19.||The course of the Sun: his motion: and from whence proceedeth the inequalitie of daies.||74.||Where the shadows fall opposite and contrarie twice in the yeare.|
|20.||Why lightnings be assigned to Iupiter.||75.||Where the dayes bee longest, and where shortest.|
|21.||The distances between the planets.||76.||Likewise of Dyals and Quadrants.|
|22.||The harmonie of stars and planets.||77.||The divers observations and acceptations of the day.|
|23.||The geometrie and dimensions of the world.||78.||The diversities of regions, and the reason thereof.|
|24.||Of stars appearing sodainly.||79.||Of Earthquake.|
|25.||Of comets or blasing stars, and other prodigious appearances in the skie: their nature, situation, and sundrie kinds.||80.||Of the chinks and openings of the earth.|
|26.||The opinion of Hipparchus the Philosopher as touching the stars, fire-lights, lamps, pillars or beams of fire, burning darts, gapings of the skie, and other such impresisons, by way of example.||81.||Signes of earthquake toward.|
|27.||Straunge colours appearing in the firmament.||82.||Remedies and helps against earthquakes comming.|
|28.||Flames and leams seen in the skie.||83.||Straunge and prodigious wonders seene one time in the earth.|
|29.||Circles or guirlands shewing above.||84.||Miraculous accidents as touching earth-quake.|
|30.||Of cœlestiall circles & guirlands that continue not, but soone passe.||85.||In what parts the seas went backe.|
|31.||Of many Suns.||86.||Islands appearing new out of the sea.|
|32.||Of many Moons.||87.||What Islands have thus shewed, and at what times.|
|33.||Of nights as light as day.||88.||Into what lands the seas have broken perforce.|
|34.||Of meteors resembling fierie targuets.||89.||What Islands have ben joyned to the continent.|
|35.||A straunge and wonderfull apparition in the skie.||90.||What lands have perished by water and become all sea.|
|36.||The extraordinarie shooting and motion of stars.||91.||Of lands that have setled and beene swallowed up of themselves.|
|37.||Of the stars named Castor and Pollux.||92.||What citties have beene overflowed and drowned by the sea.|
|38.||Of the Aire.||93.||Woonderfull straunge things as touching some lands.|
|39.||Of certaine set times and seasons.||94.||Of certaine lands that alwaies suffer earthquake.|
|40.||The power of the Dog-star.||95.||Of Islands that flote continually.|
|41.||The sundrie influences of stars according to the seasons and degrees of the signs.||96.||In what countries of the world it never raineth: also of many miracles as well of the earth as other elements hudled up pell mell togither.|
|42.||The causes of raine, wind, and clowds.||97.||The reason of the Sea-tides, as well ebbing as flowing, and where the sea floweth extraordinarily.|
|43.||Of thunder and lightning.||98.||Wonderfull things observed in the Sea.|
|44.||Whereupon commeth the redoubling of the voice, called Echo.||99.||The power of the Moone over Sea and land.|
|45.||Of winds againe.||100.||The power of the Sun: and the reason why the sea is salt.|
|46.||Divers considerations observed in the nature of winds.||101.||Moreover, as touching the nature of the Moone.|
|47.||Many sorts of winds.||102.||Where the sea is deepest.|
|48.||Of sodaine blasts and whirle-puffs.||103.||Admirable observations in fresh waters, as well of fountains as rivers.|
|49.||Other strange kinds of tempests & storms.||104.||Admirable things as touching fire and water joyntly togither: also of Maltha.|
|50.||In what regions there fall thunderbolts.||105.||Of Naphtha.|
|51.||Divers sorts of lightnings, and wonderous accidents by them occasioned.||106.||Of certaine places that burne continually.|
|52.||The observations [of the Tuscanes in old time] as touching lightning.||107.||Wonders of fire alone.|
|53.||Conjuring for to raise lightning.||108.||The dimension of the earth as well in length as in breadth.|
|54.||Generall rules concerning leames and flashes of lightning.||109.||The harmonicall circuit & circumference of the world.|
|55.||What things be exempt and secured from lightning and thunderbolts.|
In sum, there are in this booke of histories, notable matters, and worthie obesrvations, foure hundred and eighteene in number.
Latine Authors alledged in this booke.
Forreine Authours cited.
|1.||Of Europe.||14.||The sxith region.|
|2.||The length and breadth of Boetica, a part of Spaine, containing Andalusia, and the realme of Grenado.||15.||The eigth region.|
|3.||That hither part of Spaine, called of the Romans Hispania Citerior.||16.||Of the river Po.|
|4.||The province Narbonensis, wherein is Dauphine, Languedoc, and Provance.||17.||Of Italie beyond the Po, counted the eleventh region.|
|5.||Italie, Tiberis, Rome, and Campaine.||18.||Venice, the tenth region.|
|6.||The Island Corsica.||19.||Of Istria.|
|7.||Sardinia.||20.||Of the Alps, and the nations there inhabiting.|
|10.||Of Locri, and the frontiers of Italie.||23.||Macedonie.|
|11.||The second gulfe of Europe.||24.||Noricum.|
|12.||The fourth region of Italie.||25.||Pannonie and Dalmatia.|
|13.||The fifth region.||26.||Mœsia.|
In this booke are described 26 Islands within the Adriaticke and Ionian seas: their principall citties, towns and nations. Also the chiefe and famous rivers: the highest hills: speciall Islands besides: towns and countries that be perished. In sum, here are comprised notable things, histories, matters memorable, and observations to the number of 326.
Latine Authors brought in for testimonie.
|1.||Epirus.||13.||The Islands of Pontus, called Mer Major.|
|2.||Ætolia.||14.||The Islands of Germanie.|
|3.||Locri.||15.||Islands in the French Ocean.|
|4.||Peloponnesus.||16.||Britaine and Ireland.|
|5.||Achaia.||17.||Gaule or France.|
|6.||Arcadia.||18.||Of Gallia Lugdunesis.|
|7.||Greece, and Attica.||19.||Of Aquitaine.|
|8.||Thessalie.||20.||Of high Spaine, named Citerior.|
|10.||Macedonia.||22.||Islands in the Ocean.|
|11.||Thracia.||23.||The dimension and measure of all Europe.|
|12.||The Islands lying between those countries: among which, Creta, Euboea, the Cyclads, Sporades: also the Isles within Hellespont neare the sea Pontus, within Moeotis, Dacia, Sarmatia, and Scythia.|
Herein are contained many principall townes and countries, famous rivers; Islands also, besides cities or nations that be perished: in sum, divers things, histories, and observations.
Latine Authors cited.
Of forreine Writers.
|1.||The strange formes of many nations.||31.||Of such as carried a majestie in their behaviour.|
|2.||Of the Scythians, and other people of diverse countries.||32.||Of men of great authoritie and reputation.|
|3.||Of monstrous and prodigious births.||33.||Of certaine divine and heavenly persons.|
|4.||The transmutation of one sex into another. Also of twins.||34.||Of Scipio Nasica.|
|5.||Of the generation of man. The time of a womans childbearing, from seven moneths to eleven, proved by notable examples out of hystories.||35.||Of Chastitie.|
|6.||Of conceptions, and children within the wombe. The signes how to know whether a woman goe with a sonne or a daughter before she is delivered.||36.||Of Pietie, and naturall kindnesse.|
|7.||Of the conception and generation of man.||37.||Of excellent men in diverse sciences, and namely, in Astrologie, Grammer, and Geometrie, &c.|
|8.||Of Agrippæ, i. those who are borne with the feet forward.||38.||Item, Rare peeces of worke made by sundry artificers.|
|9.||Of straunge births, namely, by means of incision, when children are cut out of their mothers wombe.||39.||Of servants and slaves.|
|10.||Of Vopisci, i. such as being twins were born alive, notwithstanding the one of them was dead before.||40.||The excellencie of diverse nations.|
|11.||Hystories of many children borne at one burden.||41.||Of perfect contentment and felicitie.|
|12.||Examples of those that were like one to another.||42.||Examples of the variety and mutabilitie of fortune.|
|13.||The cause and manner of generation.||43.||Of those that were twice outlawed and banished: of L. Sylla and Q. Metellus.|
|14.||More of the same matter and argument.||44.||Of another Metellus.|
|15.||Of womens monthly tearmes.||45.||Of the Emperour Augustus.|
|16.||The manner of sundrie births.||46.||Of men deemed most happie above all others by the Oracles of the gods.|
|17.||The proportion of the parts of mans body and notable things therein observed.||47.||Who was cannonized a god whiles hee lived upon the earth.|
|18.||Examples of extraordinarie shapes.||48.||Of those that lived longer than others.|
|19.||Straunge natures of men.||49.||Of diverse nativities of men.|
|20.||Of bodily strength and swiftnesse.||50.||Many examples of straunge accidents in maladies.|
|21.||Of excellent sight.||51.||Of the signes of death.|
|22.||Who excelled in hearing.||52.||Of those that revived when they were caried forth to be buried.|
|23.||Examples of patience.||53.||Of suddaine death.|
|24.||Who were singular for good memorie.||54.||Of sepulchres and burials.|
|25.||The praise of C. Iulius Cæsar.||55.||Of the soule: of ghosts and spirits.|
|26.||The commendation of Pompey the Great.||56.||The first inventors of many things.|
|27.||The praise of Cato, the first of that name.||57.||Wherein all nations first agreed.|
|28.||Of valour and fortitude.||58.||Of antique letters.|
|29.||Of notable wits, or the praises of some of their singular wit.||59.||The beginning of Barbars first at Rome.|
|30.||Of Plato, Ennius, Virgill, M. Varro, and M. Cicero.||60.||The first devisers of Dials and Clockes.|
In summe, there are in this booke of stories straunge accidents and matters memorable 747.
|1.||Of land creatures: The good and commendable parts in Elephants: their capacitie and understanding.||31.||Of Frogs, Sea or sea-Calves, and Stellions.|
|2.||When Elephants were first yoked and put to draw.||32.||Of Deere both red and fallow.|
|3.||The docilitie of Elephants, and their aptnesse to learne.||33.||Of the Tragelaphis: of the Chamæleon, and other beasts that chaunge colour.|
|4.||The clemency of Elephants: that they know their owne daungers. Also of the felnesse of the Tigre.||34.||Of the Tarand, the Lycaon, and the Wolfe called Thoes.|
|5.||The perceivance and memory of Elephants.||35.||Of the Porc-espines.|
|6.||When Elephants were first seene in Italie.||36.||Of Beares, and how they bring forth their whelpes.|
|7.||The combats performed by Elephants.||37.||The rats and mice of Pontus and the Alps: also of Hedgehogs.|
|8.||The manner of taking Elephants.||38.||Of the Leontophones, the Onces, Graies, Badgers, and Squirrels.|
|9.||The manner how Elephants be tamed.||39.||Of Vipers, Snailes in shels, and Lizards.|
|10.||How long an Elephant goeth with young, and of their nature.||40.||Of Dogs.|
|11.||The countries where Elephants breed: the discord and warre betweene Elephants and Dragons.||41.||Against the biting of a mad dog.|
|12.||The industrie & subtill wit of Dragons and Elephants.||42.||The nature of Horses.|
|13.||Of Dragons.||43.||Of Asses.|
|14.||Serpents of prodigious bignesse: of Serpents named Boæ.||44.||Of Mules.|
|15.||Of beasts engendred in Scythia, and the North countries.||45.||Of Kine, Buls, and Oxen.|
|16.||Of Lions.||46.||Of the Boeufe named Apis.|
|17.||Of Panthers.||47.||The nature of sheepe, their breeding and generation.|
|18.||The nature of the Tygre: of Camels, and the Pard-Cammell: when it was first seene at Rome.||48.||Sundrie kinds of wooll and cloths.|
|19.||Of the Stag-Wolfe named Chaus: and the Cephus.||49.||Of sheepe called Musmones.|
|20.||Of Rhinoceros.||50.||Of Goats and their generation.|
|21.||Of Onces, Marmosets called Sphinges, of the Crocutes, of common Marmosets, of Indian Boeufes, of Leucrocutes, of Eale, of the Æthyopian Bulls, of the beast Mantichora, of the Licorne or Unicorne, of the Catoblepa, and the Basiliske.||51.||Of Swine and their nature.|
|22.||Of Wolves.||52.||Of Parkes and Warrens for beasts.|
|23.||Of Serpents.||53.||Of beasts halfe tame and wild.|
|24.||Of the rat of India called Ichneumon.||54.||Of Apes and Monkies.|
|25.||Of the Crocodile, the Skinke, and the River-horse.||55.||Of Hares and Connies.|
|26.||Who shewed first at Rome the Water-horse and the Crocodiles. Diverse reasons in Physicke found out by dumbe creatures.||56.||Of beasts halfe savage.|
|27.||Of beasts and other such creatures which have taught us certaine hearbes, to wit, the red Deere, Lizards, Swallowes, Tortoises, the Weasell, the Stork, the Bore, the Snake, the Panther, the Elephant, Beares, Stocke-Doves, House-Doves, Cranes, and Ravens.||57.||Of Rats and mice: of Dormice.|
|28.||Prognostications of things to come, taken from beasts.||58.||Of beasts that live not in some places.|
|29.||What cities and nations have been destroied by small creatures.||59.||Of beasts hurtfull to straungers.|
|30.||Of the Hiæna, the Crocuta and Mantichora: of Bievers and Otters.|
In summe, there are in this Booke principall matters, stories, and observations worth the remembrance 788.
Latine Authors alleadged.
Mutianus, Procilius, Verrius Flaccus, L. Piso, Cornelius Valerianus, Cato Censorius, Fenestella, Trogus, Actius, Columella, Virgil, Varro, Lu. Metellus Scipio, Cornelius Celsus, Nigidius, Trebius Niger, Pomponius Mela, Manlius Sura.
King Iuba, Polybius, Onesicritus, Isidorus, Antipater, Aristotle, Demetrius the naturall Philosopher, Democritus, Theophrastus, Euanthes, Agrippa who wrote of the Olympionicæ, Hiero, king Attalus, king Philometer, Ctesias, Philistius, Amphilochus the Athenian, Anaxipolis the Thasian, Apollodorus of Lemnos, Aristophanes the Milesian, Antigonus the Cymæan, Agathocles of Chios, Apollonicus of Pergamus, Aristander of Athens, Bacchus the Milesian, Bion of Soli, Chæreas the Athenian, Diodorus of Pyreæum, Dio the Colophonian, Epigenes of Rhodes, Evagon of Thassus, Euphranius the Athenian, Hegesias of Maronea, Menander of Pyreæum, Menander also of Heracles, Menecrates the Poet, Androcion who wrote of Agriculture or Husbandrie, Aeschrion who likewise wrote of that argument, Dionysius who translated Mago, Diophanes who collected an Epitome or Breviarie out of Dionysius, king Archelaus, and Nicander.
|1.||The nature of water-creatures.||32.||Of Wilkes, cockles, and shell fishes.|
|2.||The reason why the creatures of the sea are of all others biggest.||33.||Of Scallops, Porcellanes, of the shell fish Murex, and other such.|
|3.||The monstrous beasts of the Indian sea.||34.||The riches and treasures of the sea.|
|4.||The greatest fishes and beasts in everie part of the Ocean.||35.||Of pearles, how they be engendered, and where: also how they be found.|
|5.||Of Tritones, Nereides, and sea Elephants: their shapes and formes.||36.||The nature of the Purple fish and the Burrets or Murices.|
|6.||Of great Whales, called Balænæ and Orcæ.||37.||How many kinds there be of purple fishes.|
|7.||Whether fishes doe take and deliver their breath? whether they sleepe or no?||38.||How the purple fishes be taken.|
|8.||Of Dolphins and their wonderfull properties.||39.||When purple was first worne in the citie of Rome.|
|9.||Of the Tursiones.||40.||The price of purple cloths at Rome.|
|10.||Of the sea Tortoises, and how they bee taken.||41.||The dying of the Amethyst colour, of the Skarlet in graine, and the light Skarlet Hysginus.|
|11.||Who first devised to slive the Tortoise shels into leaves.||42.||Of the fish called the Nacre, and his guide or keeper Pinnoteres: also the intelligence of fishes and water creatures.|
|12.||The skins and shels of the sea creatures: the division of them into their severall kinds.||43.||Of Scolopendres, sea-Foxes, and the fishes Glani.|
|13.||Of the Seale or sea Calfe.||44.||Of the fish called the sea Ram.|
|14.||Of fishes smooth and without haire: how they spawn and breed: and how many sorts there be of them.||45.||Of those things which have a third nature, beeing neither living creatures, ne yet plants, to wit, of sea Nettils and Spunges.|
|15.||The names and natures of many fishes.||46.||Of Houndfishes or sea dogs.|
|16.||The presages by fishes, and their varietie.||47.||Of sea fishes that have stonie shels: of those that have no sence at all: of other nastie and filthie creatures.|
|17.||Of the Mullet & other fishes. That the same fishes are not in request in all places.||48.||Of sea fishes venomous.|
|18.||Of the Barble, the sea Raven Caracinus: of Stockfish and Salmon.||49.||The diseases incident to fish.|
|19.||Of the Exoecutus, Calamaries, Lampreies, &c.||50.||The admirable generation of fishes.|
|20.||The division of fishes by the shapes of their bodies.||51.||Item, Another discourse of their generation: and what fishes they bee which doe lay egges.|
|21.||Of Eeles.||52.||The matrices or wombes of fishes.|
|22.||The manner of taking them in the Lake Benacus.||53.||What fishes live longest.|
|23.||The nature of the Lamprey.||54.||Of Oyster pits, and who did first devise them.|
|24.||Of flat and broad fishes.||55.||Who first invented stewes and ponds to feed Lampreies in.|
|25.||Of the stay-ship Echeneis, and his wonderfull nature.||56.||The stewes and ponds for other shell fishes, and who brought them up first to be used.|
|26.||The changeable nature of fishes.||57.||Of fishes that haunt the land.|
|27.||Of the fish called the Lanterne, and the sea Dragon.||58.||The rats of Nilus.|
|28.||Of fishes wanting bloud.||59.||Of the fish called Anthias, and how hee is taken.|
|29.||Of the Pourcuttle, the Cuttle fish, the Calamarie, and the fish called the Sayler or Marriner.||60.||Of the sea starres.|
|30.||The fish Ozæna, and Nauplius: also of Lobstars.||61.||Of the fishes Dactyli, and their admirable properties.|
|31.||Of Crabs, sea Porkespines: and of the greater sort named Echinometræ.||62.||What fishes do entertaine amitie one with another, and which be ever at warre.|
In summe, this Booke containeth stories, notable things, and observations, to the number of 650, collected
Out of Latine Authors.
Out of Forreine Writers.
|1.||The nature of Foules.||39.||A certaine footlesse Martinets, called Apodes.|
|2.||Of the Phoenix.||40.||Of certain Gulss that milke and suck Goats udders, and be named Caprimulgi: also of Pelicanes named Plateæ.|
|3.||Of Ægles||41.||The perceivance and naturall wit of birds.|
|4.||When the Romane legions used the Æagle standerd, and other ensignes. Also with what creatuers Ægles maintaine fight.||42.||Of the Linnet, Popinjay, or Parret, & such birds that will learne to speake.|
|5.||A strange and woonderfull case as touching an Ægle.||43.||The intelligence and understanding that Ravens have.|
|6.||Of the Vultures or Geires.||44.||Of Diomedes his birds.|
|7.||Of the foule Sangualis.||45.||Of dull witted birds that will be taught nothing.|
|8.||Of Faulcons and Hawkes.||46.||The manner how birds drinke.|
|9.||Of the Cuckow, which is killed by birds of her owne kind.||47.||Of foules called Himantipodes, and Onacrotali, and of other such strange birds.|
|10.||Of Kites or Puttockes.||48.||The names of many birds & their natures.|
|11.||A division of birds into generall kinds.||49.||Of straunge and new birds, such also as bee holden for fabulous.|
|12.||Of unluckie and ominous birds, the Crow, the Raven, and the Like-owle.||50.||Who devised first to cram Hens & Capons; of bartons, mewes, and coupes to keep and feed foules, and the first inventour thereof.|
|13.||Of the foule that carieth fire in her mouth.||51.||Of Æsopes platter.|
|14.||Of the Clivina.||52.||The generation of birds, and what fourfooted beasts do lay egs as well as birds.|
|15.||Of many birds unknowne.||53.||The knitting of egges within the bodie, the laying, couving and sitting of them, the maner and time of birds engendring.|
|16.||Of foules tthat flie by night.||54.||The accidents that befall to broodie birds whiles they sit, and the remedies thereof.|
|17.||Of Howlets.||55.||Auguries and presages by egges.|
|18.||Of the Wood-pecker.||56.||What Hens be of the best kind.|
|19.||Of birds which have clawes and crooked tallons.||57.||The diseases incident to Hens, & the cure.|
|20.||Of Peacockes: and who killed them first for to be served at the table.||58.||The maner how birds conceive: what number of egs they lay, & how many they hatch.|
|21.||Of Cockes: how they be cut: of a dunghill cocke that spake.||59.||Of Peacockes and Geese.|
|22.||Of Geese: who first devised to make a daintie dish of the Goose liver: the gravie or fat of Geese, called Comagenum.||60.||Of Herons and Bitters. The way to preserve and keepe egges.|
|23.||Of Cranes, Storkes, Swans, straunge fouls of outlandish countries, of Quailes, and the bird Glotis.||61.||The only bird that bringeth forth her yong alive, & feedeth the same at the pap with milk.|
|24.||Of Swallowes and Martins, of Blackbirds, Thrushes, and Merles, of Sterlings, Turtle-doves, and Quoists or Ringdoves.||62.||The conception of the Viper, and how she is delivered of her young, also what land creatues lay egges.|
|25.||Of birds that tarie with us all the year long, of birds that be for halfe a yeare only, and others that remain but three months.||63.||The ordinary generation of land creatures.|
|26.||Marvellous stories of birds.||64.||The diversitie of living creatures in the maner of their engendering.|
|27.||Of the birds called Seleucides.||65.||The yong ones that mice and rats do breed.|
|28.||Of the foule Ibis.||66.||Whether of the marrow of a mans backe bone a serpent will engender.|
|29.||What birds will not abide in all places: which they be that chaunge both hew and voice: also of Nightingales.||67.||Of the Salamander.|
|30.||Of Merles and Ousels.||68.||What things be engendered of those that were never engendered, and contrariwise, what creatures they be, which being engendered themselves, breed not.|
|31.||The time wherein birds breed, lay, and sit.||69.||The sences of living creatures.|
|32.||Of the birds Halciones, the navigable daies that they doe shew: of the Sea-guls and Cormorants.||70.||That fishes doe both heare and smell.|
|33.||The industrie and subtiltie of birds in building their neasts: of the ordinarie Swallow, the river Swallow Argatilis: the birds Cinnamologi that steale Cinnamon, and of Partridges.||71.||That the sence of feeling is common to all living creatures.|
|34.||Of House doves.||72.||What creatures live of poysons, and eat earth.|
|35.||Of Stock-doves.||73.||Of the meat and drinke of diverse creatures.|
|36.||Of Sparrowes.||74.||What creatures evermore disagree: and which they bee that agree well together.|
|37.||Of the Kestrell or Stannell.||75.||Of the sleepe of living creatures.|
|38.||Of the flight and gate of birds.|
This Booke hath in it of notable things, hystories and observations 904, gathered out of
Latine Authors and records.
|1.||Of Insects in generall.||28.||The wings of Insects, of Beetles and their kinds.|
|2.||The naturall industrie of those Insects.||29.||Of Locusts.|
|3.||Whether Insects do breath, & whether they have bloud or no?||30.||Of Ants or Pismires in Italie.|
|4.||The matter & substance of the Insects bodie.||31.||Of Indian Ants or Emmets.|
|5.||Of Bees.||32.||The diverse sorts of Insects.|
|6.||The government and order which Bees keep by instinct of nature.||33.||Of certaine creatures breeding of wood, and living of wood.|
|7.||Divers operations of the Bees, & the tearms thereto belonging.||34.||Of a certain creature that hath no passage to void excrements.|
|8.||Of what flowers Bees do make their cellars, combes, and other workes.||35.||Of Moths and Gnats.|
|9.||What persons tooke a great love to Bees, and delighted to nourish them.||36.||Of flies living in the fire, named Pyrales or Pyraustæ.|
|10.||The manner of Bees when they be at their businesse.||37.||A discourse Anatomicall of all parts and members of the bodie.|
|11.||Of Drones.||38.||Of Bloud. Also in what creatures bloud will soonest clutter and congeale, and whose will not at all. What creatures have the grossest and heaviest bloud, and which the finest and thinnest: and lastly, who have no bloud at all.|
|12.||The nature of Honey.||39.||Whether the soveraignetie and excellencie of sence consisteth in bloud. Of the skin and hide, of the haires and dugs of living creatures.|
|13.||Which is the best Honey.||40.||What creatures have notable dugs or teats above the rest.|
|14.||The severall and particular kinds of Honey in diverse places.||41.||Of Milke, and what milke will make no cheese.|
|15.||The markes and tokens of good Honey.||42.||Divers kinds of Cheese.|
|16.||Of a third kind of Honey, and how a man should know good bees.||43.||How the lims and members of mans body differeth from other creatures.|
|17.||The regiment and pollicie that Bees observe.||44.||The resemblance that Apes have to us.|
|18.||Diverse sorts of Bees, and what things bee hurtfull to Bees.||45.||Of Nailes.|
|19.||The diseases incident to Bees.||46.||Of Houfes.|
|20.||How to keepe the cast of Bees when they swarme, that they flie not away, also how to recover Bees, in case their breed and race be lost.||47.||Of birds feet and their clawes.|
|21.||Of Wespes and Hornets.||48.||Of Insects feet, from two to an hundred.|
|22.||Of silk flies, their wores and Iackes called Bombylis and Necydalus, and who first devised silke cloth.||49.||Of Dwarfes in each kind, and the genitall parts.|
|23.||Of the silkeworme in the Island Coos.||50.||Of Tailes.|
|24.||Of the Spiders and their generation.||51.||Of Voices.|
|25.||Of Scorpions.||52.||Of superfluous members of the bodie. The sayings of Aristotle as touching long life.|
|26.||Of Stellions and Grashoppers.||53.||Of the wind & breath that living creatures take. What things if they bee tasted, bee venomous and deadly. The food of man, as well for meat as drinke. What causes they be that hinder digestion.|
|27.||In what countries there bee no Grashoppers, and where they sing not.||54.||How to increase or diminish the corpulencie of the bodie, and what things with tast onely, will allay hunger and quench thirst.|
In summe, this Booke containeth notable things, stories, and observations 2270.
Latine Authors cited.
|1.||The honor done to trees, of the Plane trees: when they were first brought into Italy, and of their nature.||14.||Of Frankincense, & trees that yeeld Incense.|
|2.||Of the dwarfe Planes growing low, and who was the first that cut and shred trees into arbours.||15.||Of Myrrhe and Myrrhe trees.|
|3.||Of straunge trees, and principally of the Citron tree in Assyria.||16.||Of sundrie sorts of Myrrhe, the nature therof and the price.|
|4.||Of India trees, and when Ebene was first seen at Rome.||17.||Of Masticke, Ladanum, and Bruta, of Enhæmum, Strobus, and Styrax.|
|5.||Of a certaine Thorne and Figgtree of India.||18.||Of the felicitie and happinesse of Arabia.|
|6.||Of a tree named Pala: also of other Indian trees that are namelesse, and of those that beare wooll and cotton.||19.||Of Cinnamon, and the wood thereof called Xylocinnamum, and of Casia.|
|7.||Of Pepper trees and Clove trees, and manie others.||20.||Of Isocinnamon or Canel, of Caucamum and Tarum.|
|8.||Of Macir or Sugar, and the trees growing in the region of Ariana.||21.||Of Serichatum, Gabalium, and Ben, otherwise called Myrobalanus.|
|9.||Of Bdellium, and of trees along the Persian gulfe.||22.||Of Dates called Phoenicobalanus, & sweet Calamus.|
|10.||Of trees growing in the Island within the Persian gulfe, and those that beare Cotton.||23.||Of Ammoniacum, and the sweet mosse called Sphagdus or Usnea.|
|11.||Of Gossampine trees, and those which serve to make cloth, and wherein consisteth the fruit of certaine trees.||24.||Of Cyprus, Aspalathus and Marum.|
|12.||Of Costus, Spikenard, & divers sorts of Nard.||25.||Of Baulme, as well the liquor called Opobalsamum, as the wood Xylobalsamum, of Storax and Galbanum.|
|13.||Of Asarabacca, Amomum, Amonius and Caramomum.||26.||Of Panace, Spondylium, and Malobathurm or Folium.|
In summe, this booke containeth in it of notable matters, hystories, and observations, 974.
Latine Authours alleadged.
|1.||Of sweet ointments & perfumes: when they came to bee first knowne at rome, and of their composition.||14.||The trees of Æthyopia.|
|2.||What ointment was that which they called Roiall: which be Diapasmate or drie perfumes, and how they be kept.||15.||The trees of Atlas, Citron trees, what points are commendable or otherwise faultie therein.|
|3.||The roiotous and superfluous expences that the Romanes were at for such ointments: and when they were first taken up and used in Rome.||16.||Of the tree Thya.|
|4.||Of Palmes or Date trees, their nature and sundrie sorts.||17.||Of the tree Lotos.|
|5.||The trees of Syria.||18.||Of the bodie and root of Lotus.|
|6.||Of the Terebinth tree.||19.||Of Papyrus, of the Pomgranat, and the flower of the Pomgranat.|
|7.||Of the Ægyptian Figtree or Sycomore, and that of Cypresse.||20.||Of plants and shrubs in Asia and Greece.|
|8.||Of the fruit which is called Ceraunia Siliqua.||21.||Of Thymelæa, Chamelæa, Tragacanthe, Tragium or Scorpio, of Tamariske, Brya, and Galla.|
|9.||Of the Peach-tree or Persica of Ægypt: and the Ægyptian thorn, wherof commeth Acacia.||22.||Of Euonymous or Spyndle tree, of Adrachne, Congygria, and Thapsia.|
|10.||Of the Plum tree and others about Memphis.||23.||Of Capparis or Cynosbatos, or Opheostaphyle, and of Sari.|
|11.||Sundrie sorts of gums, and of the Papyr reed.||24.||Of the royall thorne of Babylon, and Cytisus or tree Trifolie.|
|12.||Divers kinds of Paper, how Paper is made, the triall of good Paper, the faults of Paper, and the paste that goeth to the making of Paper.||25.||Of shrubs and trees growing upon our Mediterranean seas, the red sea, and the Indian sea.|
|13.||The bookes of King Numa.|
In summe, there be comprised in this booke of notable things, stories, and observations, foure hundred and fiftie eight.
Latine Authours cited.
|1.||Of Vines and their nature, the manner how they beare grapes.||12.||Observations of wine, set down by king Romulus.|
|2.||Sundry kinds of vines in generall.||13.||The auncient usage of wine, and the wines of old time.|
|3.||More kinds of vines according to the propertie of countries where they grow.||14.||Of cellars for wine, and the wine Opiminianum.|
|4.||Notable considerations as touching the planting and ordering of Vines.||15.||Cæsars liberalitie in wine, & when first there were foure sorts of wine set downe.|
|5.||The nature of wine.||16.||Of artificiall or set wines.|
|6.||The best and most kindly wines.||17.||Of Hydromell and Oxymell.|
|7.||Wines outlandish and beyond sea.||18.||Prodigious and strange kinds of wine.|
|8.||Of the wine called Biæon, seven kinds therof.||19.||What wines might not bee used in sacrifices, and with what sorts new wines are sophisticated.|
|9.||Of sweet wines foureteene sorts.||20.||Sundrie sorts of Pitch and Rosin: of the manner of sophisticating new wines: of vinegre and wine lees.|
|10.||Of second wines or houshold wines.||21.||Of wine cellars.|
|11.||What good wines began of late to bee in request at Rome.||22.||Of avoiding drunkennesse.|
In summe, it containeth notable matters, hystories and observations 510, gathered out of
|1.||The nature of fruitfull trees.||16.||Of preserving & keeping Apples and such like fruits.|
|2.||Of the oyle of Olives.||17.||The manner how to keepe Quinces, Pomgranats, Peares, Wardens, Sorvisses, and Grapes.|
|3.||The nature of the Olive & yong Olive trees.||18.||Of Figs nine and twentie sorts.|
|4.||The nature of the oile Olive.||19.||Of the wild Fig tree: of caprification or the manner how to bring Figgs to maturitie by the meanes of certaine flies.|
|5.||The manner of husbanding Olive rowes.||20.||Of Medlars, and three sorts of them.|
|6.||How to keepe Olives and make oile thereof.||21.||Foure kinds of Sorvoises.|
|7.||Of artificiall oile.||22.||Of the Walnut.|
|8.||Of the dregs or Olive cake, being pressed.||23.||Of Chestnuts eight kinds.|
|9.||Of fruits of trees good to eat, their severall kinds and natures.||24.||Of Charobs called Siliquæ, of Apples, of Mulberies, of Graines, Pippins and Kernils within fruits, also of berries.|
|10.||Of Pine nuts foure kinds.||25.||Of Cherries eight sorts.|
|11.||Of the Quince.||26.||Of the Corneill fruit, and Lentisks.|
|12.||Of Peaches foure sorts.||27.||Sundrie sorts of juices, and odours.|
|13.||Of Plums eleven kinds.||28.||Of the iuices in fruits and trees: of colours, smels, and the natures of diverse fruits, also the singularities and commendations of them.|
|14.||Sundrie kinds of Apples, and namely, nine and twentie sorts.||29.||Of the Myrtle, eleven kinds thereof.|
|15.||Of Peares & Wardens: of sundrie strange devises to graffe trees.||30.||Of the Lawrell or Bay tree, thirteene sorts of it.|
In summe, there be comprised in this booke of notable matters, stories, and observations, 520, collected out of
Latine Authours cited.
* i. As touching the worke of Bees.
1. Emmachus Siculus the musician: thus the editions of Holland's day.
This page is by James Eason.