Philemon Holland, translator (1601): C. Plinius Secundus The Historie of the World. Book IV. (Pages 72-89)

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From whence first arose all the fabulous lyes, and the excellent Learning of the Greekes.

The third Sea of Europe, beginneth at the mountaines Acroceraunia, and endeth in Hellespont: It containeth besides 19 smaller gulfes or creekes, 25 thousand myles. Within it, are Epirus, Acarnania, Ætolia, Phocis, Locris, Achaia, Meßania, Laconia, Argolis, Megaris, Attica, Bæotia. And againe from another sea the same Phocis and Locris, Doris, Phthiotis, Thessalia, Magnesia, Macedonia, Thracia. All the fabulous veine, and learning of Greece, proceeded out of this quarter. And therefore we will therein stay somewhat the longer. The countrey Epirus, generally so called, beginneth at the mountaines Acroceraunia. In it, are the first Chaones, of whome Chaonia taketh the name: then the Thesprotians, and Antigonenses: the place Aornus, and the aire arising out of it so noysome and pestiferous for birds. The Cestines,1 and Perrhæbians with their mountaine Pindus, the Caßiopæi, the Dryopes, Selli, Hellopes, and Moloßi, amongg hwome is the temple of Iupiter Dodonæus, so famous for the Oracle there: the mountaines Tomarus, renowmed by Theopompus for the hundred fountaines about the foot thereof.

Chap. I.


Epirus it selfe reaching to Magnesia and Macedonie, hath behind it the Dasserians above named,2 a free nation; but anon the savage people of the Dardanians. On the left side of the Dardanians, the Trebellians and nations of Moesia lye raunged: afront there joine unto them, the Medi and Denthelates;3 upon whome the Thracians border, who reach as farre as to Pontus. Thus environed it is and defenced round, partly with the high hill Rhodope, and anon also with Hæmus. In the utmost coast of Epirus among the Acroceraunia, is the castle Chimæra,4 under which is the spring of the kings water. The townes are, Mæandria and Cestria: the river of Thesprotia, Thyamis: the colonie Buthrotium: and the gulfe of Ambracia, above all others most famous, receiving at his mouth the wide sea: 39 miles in length, and 15 in breadth.5 Into it runneth the river Acheron, flowing out of Acherusia, a lake of Thesprotia 36 myles from thence: and for the bridge over it 1000 foot long, admirable to those that admire & wonder at all things of their owne. In the very gulfe is the towne Ambracia. The rivers of the Molossians, Aphas and Arachtus. The cittie Anctoria, and the lake Pandosia.6 The townes of Acarnania, called beforetimes Curetus, bee Heraclea and Echinus: and in the very entrance and mouth thereof, Actium a Colonie of Augustus, with the goodly temple of Apollo, and the free citie Nicopolis. When yee are gone out of the Ambracian gulfe into the Ionian sea, yee meet with the Leucadian sea coast, and the Promontorie of Leucate. Then the creeke, and Leucadia it selfe, a demie Island, sometime called Neritis, but by the labour of the inhabitants thereby, cut quite from the Continent, but annexed to it againe by meanes of the winds blowing together heapes of sand, which place is called Dioryctus,7 and is in length almost halfe a myle. A towne in it there is called Leucas, sometime Neritum. then the citties of the Acaranians, Halyzea, Stratos, Argos surnamed Amphilochium. The river Achelous running out of Pindus, and dividing Acarnania from Ætolia, and by continuall bringing in of earth, annexing the Island Artemita to the firme and maine land.

Chap. II.


The Ætolian nations, be the Athamanes, Tymphei, Ephiri, Ænienses, Perrhoebi, Dolopes, Maraces and Atraces, from whom the river Atrax falleth into the Ionian sea. The towne Calydon in Ætolia is seven miles and an halfe from the sea, neer to the river Euenus. Then followeth Macynia and Molychria, behind which Chalcis standeth, and the mountaine Taphiassus. But in the very edge & borders thereof, the Promontorie Antirrhium, where is the mouth of the Corinthian gulfe, not a mile broad where it runneth in, and devideth the Ætolians from Peloponnesus. The Promontorie that shooteth out against it, is named Rhion: but upon that Corinthian gulfe are the townes of Ætolia, Naupactum and Pyelene: but in the midland parts, Pleucon, Halysarna.8 The Mountaines of name: in Dodone, Tomarus: in Ambracia, Grania: in Acamania, Aracynthus: in Ætolia, Acanthon, Panætolium and Macinium.

Chap. III.


Next to the Ætolians are the Locri, surnamed Ozolæ, free States and exempt: the towne Oeanthe: the haven of Apollo Phæstius, the creeke Crissæus. Within-forth are these towns Argyna, Eupalia, Phæstum, and Calamissus. Beyond them are Cirrhæi, the plaines of Phocis, the towne Cirrha, the haven Chalæon: from which, seven miles within the land, is the free cittie Delphi, under the hill Pernassus, the most famous place upon earth for the Oracle of Apollo. The fountaine Castalius, the river Cephissus, running before Delphos, which ariseth in a cittie, sometime called Liloea. Moreover, the towne Crissa, and together with the Bulenses, Anticyra, Naulochum, Pyrrha, Amphissa an exempt State, Trichone, Tritea, Ambrysus, the region Drymæa, named Daulis.9 Then in the inmost nouke of the creeke, the very canton and angle of Boeotia is washed by the sea, with these twones Siphæ and Thebæ, which are surnamed Corsicæ, neere to Helicon. The third towne of Boeotia from this sea is Pagæ, from whence proceedeth and beareth forth the necke or cape of Peloponnesus.

Chap. IIII.


Peloponnesus, called beforetime Apia and Pelasgia, is a demie Island, worthie to come behind no other land foer excellencie and name; lying betweene two seas, Ægeum and Ionium: like unto the leafe of a plaine tree, in regard of the indented creekes and cornered noukes thereof: it beareth a circuit of 563 myles, according to Isidorus. The same, if you comprise the creekes and gulfes, addeth almost as much more. The streight where it beginneth to passe on and and goe forward, is called Isthmos. In which place the seas abovenamed gushing and breaking from diverse waies, to wit, from the North and the East, doe devour all the bredth of it there: untill by the contrarie running in of so great seas, the sides on both hands being eaten away, and leaving a space of land betweene, five miles over, Hellas with a narrow neck doth meet with Peloponnesus. The one side thereof is called the Corinthian gulfe, the other, the Saronian. Lecheum of the one hand, and Cenchreæ of the other, do bound out and limit the said streight: where the ships are to fetch a great compasse about with some daunger, such vessels I meane as for their bignesse cannot be conveighed over upon wains. For which cause, Demetrius the king, Cæsar the Dictator, prince Caius,10 and Domitius Nero, assaied to cut through the narrow foreland, and make a channell navigable with ease: but the attempt and enterprise was unhappie, as appeared by the issue and end of them all. In the middest of this narrow streight which wee have called Isthmos, the Colonie Corinthus, beforetime called Ephyra, situate hard upon a little hill, is inhabited, some threescore stadia from both sea sides: which from the top of the high hill and castle there, which is named Acrocorinthus, wherein is the fountain Pirene, hath a prospect into both those contrarie seas. At this Corinthian gulfe there is a passage or cut by sea from Leucas to Patræ of 87 miles. Patræa a Colonie, built upon the promontorie of Peloponnesus, that shooteth farthest into the sea, overagainst Ætolia and the river Evenus, of lesse distance as hath been said, than five my[l]es, in the very gullet and entrance, do send out the Corinthian gulfe 85 myles in length, even as farre as Isthmos.

Chap. V.


Achaia, the name of a province, beginneth at Isthmus: aforetime it was called Ægialos, because of the citties, situate so orderly upon the strand. The principall and first there is Leucheæ abovenamed, a port town of the Corinthians. Next to it Oluros, a castle of the Pellenæans. The towns, Helice, Buria, and (into which the inhabitants retired themselves, when these beforenamed were drowne in the sea) Sicyon, Ægira, Ægion and Erineos. Within the countrey was Cleone and Hysiæ. Also the haven Panhormus, & Rhium described before: from which promontorie five myles off standeth Patræ abovementioned, and the place called Pheræ. Of nine hils in Achaia, Scioessa is most knowne, also the Spring Cymothoe. Beyond Patræ is the towne Olenum, the Colonie Dymæ. Certaine faire places called Buprasium and Hirmene: and the promontorie Araxum. The creeke of Cyllene, the cape Chelonates: from whence to Cyllene is two myles.11 The castle Phlius. The tract also by Homer named Arethyrea, and afterwards Asophis. Then the countrey of the Elians, who before were called Epei. As for Elis the cittie it selfe, it is up higher in the midland parts, twelve myles from Pylos. Within it standeth the chappell of Iupiter Olympius, which for the fame of the games there, containeth the Greekes and Chaldeans account of yeares.12 Moreover, the towne sometime of the Pisæans, before which the river Alpheus runneth. But in the borders and coast thereof the promontorie Icthys. Upon the river Alpheus, there is passage by water in barges to the townes Aulos and Leprion.13 The promontorie Platanestus.14 All these lie Westward. But toward the South, the arme of the sea called Cyparissus and the cittie Cyparissa, 72 miles in circuit. The townes upon it, Pylos, Methone, a place and forrest called Delos:15 the promontorie Acritas: the creeke Assinæus of the towne Asinum, and Coronæus of Corone. And these are limited with Tænarus the promontorie. There also is the region Messenia with 22 mountaines. The river Paomisus.16 But within, Messene it selfe, Ithome, Oechalia, Arene, Pteleon, Thryon, Dorion, Zanclum,17 famous townes all for many occurrents at sundrie times. The compasse of this arme of the sea is 80 myles, the cut overcrosse 30 myles. Then from Tænarus, the Laconian land pertaining to a free people, and an arme of the sea there is a circuit about 206 miles, but 39 miles over. The townes Tænarum, Amiclæ, Pheræ, Leuctra, and within-forth Sparta, Theranicum: and where stood Cardamyle, Pitane, and Anthane. The place Thyrea, and Gerania. The hill Taygetus: the river Eurotas, the creeke Ægylodes, and the towne Psammathus. The gulfe Gytheates, of a towne thereby (Gythæum) from whence to the Island Creet, there is a most direct and sure cut. All these are enclosed within the promontorie Maleum. The arme of the sea next following is called Argolicus, and is 50 miles over, and 172 miles about. The townes upon it, Boea, Epidaurus, Limera, named also Zarax.18 Cyphanta the haven. Rivers, Inachus, Erasinus: betweene which, standeth Argos surnamed Hippium upon the Lake Lerne, from the sea two miles, and nine miles farther Mycenæ. Also, where they say Tiryntha stood, and the place Mantinea. Hils, Artemius, Apesantus, Asterion, Parparus, and eleven others besides. Fountains, Niobe, Amymone, Psammothe. From Scyllæum to Isthmus 177 myles. Townes, Hermione, Troezen, Cotyphasium and Argos, called of some Inachium, of others Dipsium.19 The haven Cænites,20 the creeke Saronicus, beset round about in old time with woods of oake, wherupon it had the name, for so old Greece called an oake. Within it stood the towne Epidaurum, must resorted unto for the temple of Æsculapius, the promontorie Spiræum, the havens Anthedon, and Bucephalus: and likewise Cenchreæ which we spake of before, being the other limit of Isthmus, together with the chappell of Neptune, famous for the Games there represented every five yeeres. Thus many creekes do scotch and cut Peloponnesus: thus many seas I say doe rore and dash against it. For on the North side the Ionian sea breaketh in: on the West it is beaten upon with the Sicilian. From the South the Cretian sea driveth against it: Ægeum from the Southeast, and Myrtoum on the Northeast, which beginning at the Megarian gulfe, washeth all Attica.

Chap. VI.

Of Arcadia.

The midland parts thereof, Arcadia most of all taketh up, being every way far remote from the sea: at the beginning it was named Drymodis,21 but soone after Pelasgis. The townes in it be Psophis, Mantinea, Stymphalum, Tegea, Antegonea, Orchomenum, Pheneum, Palantium,22 from whence the mount Palatium at Rome tooke the name. Megalepolis, Catina, Bocalium, Carmon, Parrhasiæ, Thelphusa, Melanæa, Heræa, Pile, Pellana, Agræ, Epium, Cynætha, Lepreon of Arcadia, Parthenium, Alea, Methydrium, Enespe, Macistum, Lampe, Clitorioum, Cleone: betweene which townes is the tract Nemea, usually called Berubinadia.23 Mountaines in Arcadia, Pholoe with a towne so named. Item, Hyllene,24 Lyceus, wherein was the chappell of Iupiter Lycenus, Mænalus, Artemisius, Parthenians,25 Lampeus, and Nonacris: and eight besides of base account. Rivers, Ladon, issuing out of the meeres and fennes of Pheneus, Erymanthos out of a mountaine of the same name, running both downe into Alpheus. The rest of the citties to bee named in Achæa, Aliphiræi, Abeatæ, Pyrgenses, Pareatæ, Paragenitiæ, Tortuni, Typanæi, Thryasii, Trittenses. All Achæa generally throughout, Domitius Nsero endowed with freedom.26 Peloponnesus from the promontorie of Malea to the towne Lechræum upon the Corinthin gulfe, lieth in breadth 160 miles: but over crosse from Elis to Epidaurum 125 myles: from Olympia to Argos through Arcadia 63 miles. From the same place to Phlius is the said measure.27 And all throughout, as if Nature made recompence for the irruptions of the seas, it riseth up in threescore and sixteene hils.

Chap. VII.

Greece and Attica.

At the streights of Isthmus beginneth Hellas, of our countreymen called Græcia. The first tract thereof is Attica, in old time named Acte. It reacheth unto Isthmus on that part therof which is called Megaris of the colonie Megara, or against Pagæ.28 These two towns as Peloponnesus lieth out in length, are seated on either hand, as it were, upon the shoulders of Hellas. The Pagæans, and more than so, the Ægosthenienses lie annexed to the Magarensians, and owe service to them. In the coast thereof is the haven Schoenis. Townes, Sidus, Cremyon, Scironia rockes for three myles29 long, Geranea, Megara, and Eleusin. There were besides Oenoa and Probalinthus, which now are not to be seene, 52 myles30 from Isthmus. Pyræeus and Phalera, two havens joined to Athens by a wall, within the land five myles. A free cittie this is, and needeth no more any mans praise: so noble and famous it is otherwise, beyond all measure. In Attica be these fountaines, Cephissia, Larine, Callirhoe, and Enneacreunos.31 Mountaines, Brilessus, Megialcus, Icarius, Hymettus, and Lyrabetus: also the river Ilissos. From Pyræeum 42 miles offf, is the promontorie Sunium, likewise the promontorie Doriscum. Also, Potamos and Brauron, townes in time past.32 The village Rhamnus, and the place Marathon, the plain thriastius, the town Melita and Oropus, in the confines or marches of Boeotia. Unto which belong Anthedon, Onchestos, Thespiæ a free towne[,] Lebadea: and thebes surnamed Boeotia, not inferior in fame and renowne to Athens, as being the native countrey, and as men would have it, of two gods, Liber and Hercules. Also, they attribute the birth of the Muses in the wood Helicon. To this Thebes is assigned the forrest Cithæron, and the river Ismenus. Moreover, Fountaines in Boeotia, Oedipodium, Psammate,33 Dirce, Epigranea, Arethusa, Hippocrene, Aganippe, and Gargaphiæ. Mountaines over and besides the forenamed, Mycalessus, Adylisus, Acontius. The rest of the towns betweene Megara and Thebes, Eleutheræ, Haliartus, Plateæ, Pheræ, Aspledon, Hyle, Thisbe, Erythræ, Glissas, and Copæ. Neere to the river Cephissus, Lamia and Anichia: Medeon, Phligone, Grephis,34 Coronæa, Chæronia. But in the outward borders, beneath Thebes, Ocale, Elæon, Scolos, Scoenos, Peteon, Hyrie, Mycalessus, Hyreseon, Pteleon, Olyros, Tanagia, a free state; and in the very mouth of Euripus, which the Island Euboea maketh by the opposite site thereof, Aulis, so renowned for the large haven that it hath. The Boeotians in old time were named Hyantes. The Locrians also are named withall Epicnemidij, in times past Letegetes,35 through whome the river Cephissus runneth into the sea. Townes, Opus (whereof commeth the gulfe Opuntinus) and Cynus. Upon th esea-coast of Phocis, one and no more, to wit Daphnus. Within-forth among the Locrians, Elatea, and upon the bank o fCephissus (as we have said) Lilæa: and toward Delphos, Cnenius and Hiampolis. Againe, the marches of Locri, wherein stand Larymna and Thronium, neere unto which the river Boagrius falleth into the sea. Townes, Narycion, Alope, Scarphia. After this, the vale called of the people there dwelling, Maliacus Sinus, wherein bee these townes, Halcyone, Econia, and Phalara. Then Doris, wherein are Sperchios, Erineon, Boion, Pindus, Cytinum. On the backe side of Doris is the mountaine Oeta. Then followeth Æmonia that so often hath changed name: For one and the same hath beene called Pelasgicum, Argos, and Hellas, Thessalia also and Dryopis, and evermore tooke name of the kings. In it was borne a king called Græcus, of whom Greece bare the name.36 there also was Hellen borne, from whence came the Hellenes. These being but one people, Homer hath given three names unto, that is to say, Myrmidones, Hellenes, and Achæi.37 Of these, they be called Phthiotæ who inhabit Doris. Their townes be Echinus, in the very gullet and entrance of the river Sperchius: and the streights of Thermopylæ, so named by reason of the waters: and foure miles from thence Heraclea, was called Trachin.38 There is the hill Callidromus: and the famous townes, Hellas, Halos, Lamia, Phthia, and Arne.

Chap. VIII.


Moreover in Thessalie, Orchomenus, called beforetime Minyeus; and the towne Almon, or after some Elmon; Atrax, Pelinna, and the fountaine Hyperia. Townes, Pheræ, behind which Pierius stretcheth forth to Macedonie: Larissa, Gomphi, Thebes of Thessalie, the wood Pteleon, and the creeke Pagasicus. The towne Pagasa, the same named afterwards Demetrias; Tricca, the Pharsalian plaine, with a free citie; Cranon, and Ileria. Mountaines of Phthiotis, Nymphæus, most faire and sightly for the naturall arbors and garden-workes there: Buzigæus, Donacesa, Bermius, Daphissa, Chimerion, Athamas, Stephane. In Thessaly there be 34, whereof the most famous are, Cerceti, Olympus, Pierus, Ossa: just against which, is Pindus and Othrys, the seat and habitation of the Lapithæ; and those lie toward the West: but Eastward, Pelios, all of them bending in manner of a theatre: and before them stand raunged wedgewise, 72 cities. Rivers of Thessalie, Apidanus, Phoenix, Enipeus, Onochomus, Pamisus: the fountaine Messeis, the poole Boebeis: and above all the rest, the most famous river Peneus, which arising neere Gomphi, runneth for 500 stadia in a woodie dale between Ossa and Olympus, and halfe that way is navigable. In this course of his, are the places called Tempe, 5 miles in length, and almost an acre and a halfe broad, where on both hands the hils arise by a gentle ascent above the reach of mans sight. Within-forth glideth Peneus by, in a fresh green grove, clear as crystall glasse over the gravelly stones; pleasant to behold for the grasse upon the bankes, and resounding againe with the melodious consent of the birds. It taketh in the river Eurotas,39 but entertaineth him not, but as he floweth over the top of him like oyle, as Homer saith:40 within a while after that hee hath carried him a small way, letteth him goe againe and rejecteth him, as refusing to mingle with his owne silver streames, those poenall and cursed waters engendred for the infernall Furies of hell.



To Thessaly, Magnesia is annexed: the fountaine there, is Libethra. the townes, Iolchos, Himmenium, Pyrrha, Methone, Olizon. The promontorie Sepias. Townes moreover Castana, Sphalatra, and the promontorie Ænantium. Townes besides, Meliboea, Rhisus, Erymne. The mouth of Peneus. Townes, Hmolium, Orthe, Thespiæ, Phalanna, Thaumacie, Gyrton, Cranon, Acarne, Dorion, Melitæa, Phylace, Potinæ. The length of Epirus, Achaia, Attica, and Thessalie, lying streight out, is by report 480 miles, the breadth 287.

Chap. X.


Macedonie, so called afterwards (for before time it was named Emathia) is a kingdome consisting of 150 severall States, renowmed for two kings above the rest; and ennobled sometime for the Monarchie and Empire of the world. This countrey lying farre in behind Magnesia and Thessalie toward the nations of Epirus Westward, is much troubled and infested with the Dardanians. The North parts thereof, are defended by Pæonia and Pelagonia, against the Triballi. The townes be these, Aege, wherein the manner was to interre their kings: Beroea, and Aeginium, in that quarter which of the Wood is called Pieria. In the outward borders, Heraclea, and the river Apilas: more townes, Phina, and Oloros: the river Haliacmon. Within-forth, are the Haloritæ, the Vallei, Phylacei, Cyrrhestæ, Tyrrisæi: Pella the Colonie: the town Stobi of Romane citizens. Anon, Antigonia, Europus upon the river Axius, and another of the same name through which Rhædias runneth: Heordeæ, Scydra, Mieza, Gordiniæ. Soone after in the borders, Ichnæ, and the river Axius. To this bound the Dardani: Treres, and Pieres border upon Macedonie. From this river, are the nations of Pæonia, Patorei, Heordenses, Almopij, Pelagones, and Mygdones. The mountaines Rhodope, Scopius, and Orbelus. The rest is a plaine countrey, wherein Nature seemeth to set out her riches: in the lap wherof are the Arethusij, Antiochienses, Idomenenses, Doberienses, Trienses, Allantenses, Andaristenses,41 Moryllij, Garesci, Lyncestæ, Othrionei, and the free States of the Amantines and Orestæ. Colonies, Bulledensis and Diensis. Xilopolitæ, Scotussæi free; Heraclea, Sintica, Timphei and Coronæi.42 In the coast of the Macedonian sea, the towne Calastra, and within-forth, Phileros, and Lete: and in the middle bending of the coast, Thessalonica, of free estate and condition. To it from Dyrrachium, it is 114 myles; Thermæ. Upon the gulfe Thermaicus, be these townes, Dicæa, Pydna, Derrha, Scione: the promontorie Canastræum. Townes, Pallene, Pherga.43 In which region these mountaines, Hypsizorus, Epitus, Alchione, Leuomne. Townes, Nissos, Brygion, Eleon, Mendæ, and in the Isthmos of Pallene, the colonie sometime called Potidæa, and now Cassanria, Anthemus; Holophyxus the creeke, and Mecyberna.44 Townes, Phiscella,45 Ampeolos, Torone, and Singos: the Frith (where Xerxes king of the Persians cut the hill Athos from the Continent) in length a mile and a halfe.46 The mountaine it selfe shooteth out from the plaine into the sea, 75 miles. The compasse of the foot thereof, taketh 150 miles. A towne there was in the pitch of it, Acroton. Now there be Uranopolis, Palæotrium,47 Thyssus, Cleone, Apoloonia, the inhabitants whereof be named Macrobij. The towne Cassera, and a second gullet or creeke of the Isthmus, Acanthus, Stagira, Sitone, Heraclea, and the region lying under Mygdonia, wherein are seated farre out from the sea, Apollonia and Arethusa. Againe in the coast, Posidium, and a creeke with the towne Cemorus: Amphipolis a free state, and the people Bisaltæ. Then, the river Strymon, which is the bound of Macedonie, which springeth in Hæmus: of which, this is worthie to be remembred, that it runneth into seven lakes before it keepeth a direct course. This is that Macedonie, which sometime conquered the dominion over all the earth: this over-ran Asia, Armenia, Iberia, Albania, Cappadocia. Syria, and Ægypt; yea and passed over Taurus and Caucasus: this ruled over the Bactrians, Medians, and Persians, and possessed all the East: this having the conquest of India, ranged over the tracts of Father Liber and Hercules. This is the very same Macedonie, of which in one day Paulus Æmylius our Generall, sacked and sold 72 cities.48 See the difference of Fortune in two men.

Chap. XI.


Now followeth Thracia, amongst the most valiant nations of Europe, divided into 52 regiments of souldiers. Of those States in it, the Denseletes and Medi, whome it greeves me not to name, doe inhabite neare to the river Strymon on the right side, as farre as to the Bisaltae above named: on the left, the Digeri, and many townes of the Bessi, even to the river Nestus, which environeth the bottome of the hill Pangæus, betweene the Eleti, Diobesi, and Carbilesi, and so forward to the Brysæ and Capræi. Odomanta a towne of the Odrysians, sendeth out the river Hebrus to the neighbour-borderers, the Carbiletes, Pyrogeris, Drugeri, Cænicks, Hypsalts, Beni, Corpilli, botiæi, and Edons. In the same tract the Selletæ, Priautæ, Diloncæ,49 Thyni, Celetæ, the greater under Hæmus, the lesse under Rhodope: betweene whome runneth the river hebrus. The towne situate beneath Rhodope, was before-time named Poneropolis; soone after by the founder, Philippopolis; but now of the site thereof Trimontium. The ascent of Hæmus up to the top, taketh sixe miles: the backe side and hanging thereof downe to Ister, the Moesians, Getes, Aoti, Gaudæ, and Clariæ and under them the Arræi, Sarmata whom they call Areatæ, and Scythians:50 and about the sea coast of Pontus, the Morisenes and Sithonians, from whome the Poët Orpheus descended, doe inhabite. Thus Ister boundeth it on the North: in the East, Pontus and Propontus: Southward, the sea Ægæum, in the coast whereof from Strymon, stand Apollonia, Oestima,51 Neapolis, and Polis.52 Within-forth, the Colonie of Philip, and 325 myles from Dyrrhachium, Scotusa, Topiris, and the mouth of the river Nestus. The hill Pangæus, Heraclea, Olynthos[,] Abdera a free citie, the meere and nation of the Bisons.53 There, stood the towne Tinda, terrible for the horses of Diomedes that stabled there. Now at this day, Diceæ, Ismaron, the place Parthenion, Phalesina, Maronea called Ortagurea before-time. The mountaine Serrium and Zonæ: then the plaine Doriscus able to receive * 10000 men: for so Xerxes tooke a just ccount of his armie and numbred it. The mouth of Hebrus: the haven of Stentor: the free towne Ænea, togither with the tombe of Polydorus, the region sometime of the Cicones. From Doriscus, the coast bendeth crookedly to Macron-Tichos, for 122 myles. About which place the river Melas, whereof the creeke beareth name. Townes, Cypsella, Bisanthe, and that which is called Macron Tichos, what way as stretching forth the walles along from Propontis to the Creeke Melanes betweene two seas, it excludeth Chersonesus as it runneth out.54 For, Thracia of one side beginning at the sea coast of Pontus, where the river Ister is dischareged and swallowed up, hath in that quarter passing farie and beautifull cities, to wit, Istropolis of the Milesians, Tomi, and Calatis which before was called Acerneris. It had sometime Heraclea and Bizon, which sunke and was lost in a gaping chinke of the earth; but now instead thereof Dionysopolis, called before Crunos. The river Ziras runneth hard by it. All that tract, the Scythians named besides Aroteres, possessed. Their townes were, Aphrodisius, Libistos, Zigere, Borcobe, Eumenia, Parthenopolis, Geranis, where it is reported that the nation of the Pygmeans kept, whome the barbarous people call Catizi, and they are of belief that they were chased away and put to flight by cranes.55 In the edge thereof next to Dionysopolis, there is Odessus of the Milesians, the river Pomiscus, the towne Tetranaulochos: the mountaine Hæmus bearing forth with a huge top into Pontus, had in the pitch thereof the towne Aristæum. Now in the coast is Mesembria and Anchialum, where Messa was. The region Astice. There was the towne Anthium, now there is Apollonia. The rivers Panissa, Rira, Tearus, Orosines. Townes, Thynnias, Almedessos, Develton with the poole which now is called Deultum, belonging to the old souldiers.56 Phinopolis, neare unto which is Bosphorus. From the mouth of Ister to the entrance of Pontus, some have made it 555 miles. Agrippa hath set to 40 miles more.57 And from thence to the wall above named 150: and so from it to Chersonesus 126. But neere to Bosphorus is the arme of the sea Gasthenes. The haven surnamed of old men, and another likewise of women. The promontorie Chrysoceras, wherupon standeth the towne Bizantium of free estate, called beforetime Lygos. From Dyrrachium it is 711 miles. Thus much lyeth out the maine in length between the Adriaticke sea and Propontis. Rivers, Bathynias, Pydaras, or Atyras. Towns, Selymbria, Perinthus, annexed to the Continent, 200 paces broad. Within-forth, Byzia, the castle of Thracian kings, hated of Swallowes, upon the horrible and cursed fact of Tereus.58 The region Camica: the colonie flaviopolus, where beforetime the towne was called Zela. And 50 miles from Byria the colonie Apros, which is from Philippi 188 myles. But in the borders, the river Erginus, where was the towne Gonos. And there you leave the citie Lysimachia, also now in Chersonesus. For another land passage or Isthmus there is of like streightnesse, all one in name and of equall breadth with that of Corinth. Likewise on both sides two cities doe beautifie and set out the stronds, which they take up not unlike to the other, to wit, Pactiæ from Propontis, and Cardia from the gulfe Melane: as for this, it taketh the name of the forme and proportion of the place made like a hart:59 and both, afterwards, were enclosed within Lysimachia 3 myles from the ** long walls abovesaid. Chersonesus from Propontis side, had Tiristasis and Crithotes, also Cissa fsat upon the river Ægos: now it hath from the colonie Apros 32 miles Resistos, overagainst the colonie Pariana. And Hellespontus, dividing Europe from Asia, seven stadia asunder (as we have said)60 hath foure citties there opposite one against another, to wit, in Europe, Calippolis and Sestos; in Asia, Lampsacum and Abydos. Then, is the promontorie of Chersonesus Mastisia,61 just contrarie to Sigeum, in the crooked front whereof is Cynossema: for so is Hecubæs tombe named,62 the very rode of the Athenians navie. The towne and chappell of Protesilaus: and in the very utmost forefront of Cherronesus,63 which is called Æolium, the towne Elæus. After it, as a man goeth to the gulfe Melane, the havens Gælos, Panhormus, and the abovenamed Cardia. The third sea of Europe, is in this manner bounded and limited. Mountaines of Thracia over and above those afore rehearsed, Edonus, Gigemorus, Meritus, Melamphyllon. Rivers falling into Hebrus, be Bargus, and Suemus. the length of Macedonie, Thracia, and hellespontus, is set downe before. Some make it seven hundred and twentie miles. The breadth is three hundred and eightie miles. The sea Ægeum tooke that name of a rocke, betweene Tenedos and Chios, more truely than of an Iland named Aex, resembling a goat, and therfore so called of the Greekes;64 which all at once appeareth to rise out of the sea. The sea-men that saile from out of Achaia to Andros, discover it on the right hand, and to them it presageth some dreadfull and mischievous accident. Part of the Ægean sea is laid to the Myrtoum, and so called it is of a little Island, which sheweth it selfe to them that set saile from Gerestus to Macedonie, not farre from Charystos in Euboea. The Romanes comprehend all these seas in two names: namely, Macedonicum, all that which toucheth Macedonia and Thracia: and Græciensum where it beareth upon Greece. As for the Greekes, they divide even the Ionian sea into Siculum and Creticum, of the Islands. Also, Icarius they call that betweene Samos and Mycione. All the other names are given by gulfes and creeks, whereof we have spoken. And thus much verily as touching the seas and nations contained in this manner within the third section or gulfe of Europe.

Chap. XII.

The Islands betweene those lands, among which, Creta, Euboea, Cyclades, and Sporades: also of Hellespont, Pontus, Mæotis, Dacia, Sarmatia and Scythia.

Islands overagainst Thresprotia, Corcyra: 1 miles from Buthrotus, and the same from the cliffes Acroceraunia 50 myles, with a cittie of the same name, Corcyra of free condition, also the towne Cassiope, and the temple of Iupiter Casiopæus:65 it lieth out in length 97 miles. Homer called it Scheria and Phæacia:66 Callimachus also, Drepane. About it are some others: but bending toward Italie, Thoronos: and toward Leucadia the two Paxæ, five miles divided from Corcyra. And not farre from them before Corcyra, Ericusa, Marate, Elaphusa, Malthace, Trachiæ, Pytionia. Ptychia, Tarachie. And from Pholachrum a promontorie of Corcyra, the rocke into which there goeth a tale, that the shhip of Ulißes was turned, for the resemblance it hath of such a thing. Before Leucadia, Sybota.67 But between it and Achaia there be very many: of which Teleboides the same that Taphiæ: but of the inhabitants before Leucadia, they be called taphias, Ozie, and Prinoessa: and before Ætolia, the Echinades, Ægialia, Cotonis, Thyatira, Geoaris, Dionysia, Cymus, Chalcis, Pinara and Mystus. Before them in the deepe sea, Cephalenia and Zacynthus, both free States: Ithaca, Dulichium, Same, Crocylea, and Paxos. Cephalenia sometime called Melæna, is 11 myles off, and 44 myles about. As for Same, it was destroied by the Romanes: howbeit, still it hath three townes: betweene it and Achaia is Zacynthus with a town, a stately Island, and passing fertile. In times past called it was Hyrie, and is 22 miles distant from the South coast of Cephalenia. The famous hill Elatusis there. The Island it selfe is in circuit 25 miles. Twelve miles from it is Ithaca, where standeth the mountaine Neritus. And in the whole it taketh up the compasse of 25 miles. From it twelve miles off is Araxum a cape of Peloponnesus. Before this Island in the maine sea there appeare Asteris and Prote. Before Zacynthus 35 miles full East, are the two Strophades, called by others Plotæ: and before Cephalenia, Letoia. Before Pylos three Sphagiæ, and as many before Messene, called Oenussæ. In the gulfe Asinæus three Thyrides: in the Laconian gulfe, Teganusa, Cothon, Cythera with the towne, named beforetime Porphyris.68 This lieth five miles from the promontorie Malea, daungerous for ships to come about it, by reason of the streights there. In the Argolick sea are Pityusa, Irine and Ephyre: and against the territorie Hermonium, Typarenus, Epiropia, Colonis, Aristera: over against Troezenium Calauria, halfe a mile from Plateæ: also, Belbina, Lacia and Baucidias. Against Epidaurus, Cecryphalos, and Pytionesos, sixe miles from the Continent. Next to it is Ægina a free state, 17 miles off, and for 20 miles they saile by it. The same is distant from Pyræeum the port of the Athenians, 12 miles, and beforetime was usually called Oenone. Against the promontorie Spiræum, there lie opposite Eleusa, Dendros, two Craugiæ, two Cæciæ, Selachusa, Cenchreis and Aspis. Also in the Megarian gulfe, there be foure Methurides. As for Ægilia, it is 15 miles from Cythera, and the same is from Phalasama a towne in Creet 25 miles. And Creet it selfe, lying of one side to the South, and the other to the North, stretcheth forth in length East and West; a famous and noble Island for a hundred citties in it. Dosiades saith it tooke that name of the nymph Creta daughter of Hesperis: but according to Anaximander, of a king of the Curetes. Philistides, Mallotes, Crates, have thought it was called first Ætia, and afterwards Curetis, and some have thought it was named Macaros for the blessed temperature of the aire.69 In breadth it exceedeth in no place 50 miles, and in the middle part broadest t is: but in legnth it is full 270 miles: in circuit 589 miles: and winding it selfe into the Creticke sea, so called of it, where it stretcheth out farthest Eastward, it putteth forth of it the promontorie Sammonium just against Rhodos, and Westward Criu-Metopon, toward Cyrenæ. The principall townes of marke, be Phalasarnæ, Elæa, Cysamum, Pergamum, Cydon, Minoum, Apteron, Panomatrium, Amphimalla, Rhythymna, Panhormum, Cyteum, Apollonia, Matium, Heraclea, Milertos, Ampelos, Hiera-pytna, Lebena, Hierapolis. And in the midland parts, Cortyna, Phæstum. Gnossus, Potyrrhenium, Myrina, Lycastus, Rhamnus, Lyctus, Dium, Asum Pyloros, Rhytion, Clatos, Pharæ, Holopyxos, Lasos, Eleuthernæ, Therapne, Marathusa, Mytinos.70 And other townes about the number of 60, stand yet upon record. The hils bee Cadiscus, Idæus, Dictæus, and Morycus. The Isle it selfe, from the promontorie in it called Criu-Metopon, as Agrippa reporteth, is distant from Phycus, a promontorie of the Cyrene 225 miles. Likewis, from Capescum point, it is from Malca in Peloponnesus 80 miles. From the Island Carpathus, which lieth Westward from the cape Sammonia, 60 miles. This Island aforesaid lieth betweene it and Rhodos. The rest about it be these: before Peloponnesus two Coricæ, and as many Mylæ: and on the North side, when a man hath Creet on the right hand, there apepareth Leuce just against Cydonia, together with the two Budoræ, against Matium, Cia:71 against the Promontorie Itanum Onisa and Leuce: against Hierapytnam, Chrysa, and Caudos. In the same coast are Ophiussa, Butoa, and Rhamnus:72 and when have fetched about and doubled the point Criu-Metopon, appeare the Isles called Musagores. Before the Promontorie Sammonium, Phocæ, Platiæ, Sirnides, Naulochos, Armedon and Zephyre. But in Hellas, yet still in Ægeum, Lichades, Scarhpia, Maresa, Phocaria, and very many more overagainst Attica, but townlesse, and therfore obscure and of no reckoning: but against Eleusin, the noble Salamis, and before it Psytalia: and from Sunium, Helene five miles off: and Ceos from thence as many, which our countreymen have named Cæa: but the Greekes Hydrussa, cut off and dismembred from Euboea. In times past it was 500 stadia long: but soone after, foure parts almost, namely, those that butted upon Boeotia, eaten up by the same sea: so as now the townes remaining that it hath, be Iulis and Carthæa. For Coressus and Pæcessa73 are perished & gone. From hence as Varro saith, came the fine linnen cloth that women use: yea, and Euboea it selfe hath beene plucked from Boeotia, and devided with so little an arme running betweene, that a bridge joineth the one to the other:74 evident it is to the eie, and well seene, by reason of two Promontories in the South side, to wit, Genestum, bending toward Attica, and Capharens to Hellespontus: and one upon the North side, to wit, Cæneus. In no part thereof doth it extend broader than 40 miles: and no where dooth it gather in narrower than 20. But n length from Attica as farre as Thessalie, it lieth along Boeotia 150 miles: and containeth in circuit 365. From Hellespont, on Caphareus side, it is 225 miles. In times past renowed it was for these citties, Pyrrha, Porthmos, Nesos, Cerinthus, Oreum, Dium, Ædepsum, Ocha, Oechalia, now Calcis, overagainst which standeth Aulis in the maine: butn ow, for Gerestum, Eretria, Carystus, Oritanum, Artemisum, the fountaine Arethusa, the river Lelantum, the hote waters called Hellopiæ, it is of great name: but yet in more request for the marble of Carystus. In former time it was called commonly Chalcodontis or Macris, as Dionysius and Ephorus doe say: but Macra, according to Aristides: and as Callidemus would have it, Chalcis, for the brasse there first found: and as Menæcmus saith, Abantias: and last of all Asopis, as the Poets commonly name it. Without in the Myrtoum sea, be many Isles, but of greatest marke be Glauconnesus and Ægilia. And neere to the promontorie Gerestum about Delos certaine lying round together, whereupon they tooke their name Cyclades.75 The first and principall of them, Andrus with a towne, is from Gerestum tenne miles, and from Ceum 39. Myrsilus saith it was called Cauros, and afterwards Antandros. Callimachus nameth it Lasia, others Nonagria, Hydrussa and Epagris. It taketh in compasse 93 miles. A mile from the same Andros, and fifteene from Delos, lieth Tenos, with a towne fifteene miles in length: which, for the plentie of water Aristotle saith was called Hydroussa, but others name it Ophiussa. The rest bee these, Myconos with the hill Dimastos, fifteene miles from Delos. Scyros Syphnus, beforetime named Heropia and Acis, in circuit 28 miles about: Seriphus 12 miles, Præpesinthus, Cythnus. And Delos it selfe, of all others most excellent by far, as being the middest of all the Cyclades, much frequented for the temple of Apollo, and for merchandise and trafficke. Which having a long time floted up and downe (as it is reported) was the onely Island that never felt earthquake unto the time of M. Varro. Mutianus hath recorded that it was twice shaken. Aristotle giveth a reason of the name in this sort, because it was discovered, and appeared on a suddaine.76 Æglosthenes tearmeth it Cynthia: others Ortygia, Asteria, Lagia, Chlamydia, Cynethus, and Pyrpile, for that in it fire was found out first. It is but five miles about, and riseth up by the ascent of the hill cinthus. Next to it is Rhene, which Anticlides called Celadussa, and Helladius, Artemite. Moreover, Syros, which auncient writers have written to be in circuit 20 miles, and Mutians,77 160. Oliaros, Paros, with a towne, 38 miles from Delos, of great name for the white marble there, which at first men called Pactia, but afterwards Minois. From it seven miles and an halfe is Naxus (eighteene miles from Delus) with a towne, which they called Strongyle, afterwards Dia, within a while Dionysias of the plentifull vines, and others, Sicilie the lesse, and Callipolis. It reacheth in circuit 75 miles, and is halfe as long againe as Paros. And thus farre verily they observe and note for the Cyclades: the rest that follow, for the Sporades. And these they be, Helenum, Phocussa, Phæcasu, Schinussa, Phalegandros, and seventeene miles from Naxos, Icaros: which gave name to the sea, lying out as farre in length with two townes, for the third is lost: beforetime it was called Dolichum, Macris and Ichtyoëssa. It is situate Northeast, from Delos 50 miles: and from Samos distant it is 35 miles. Betweene Euboea and Andros there is a frith 12 miles over. From it to Gerestrum is 112 miles and an halfe. And then no order can be kept. The rest therefore shall be set downe huddle by heapes. Ios78 from Naxus 24 miles, venerable for the sepulchre of Homer:79 it is in length 25 miles, and in former time called Phænice. Odia, Letandros, Gyaros with a town, 12 miles about. It is from Aneros 62 miles. From thence to Syrnus 80 miles. Cynethussa, Telos, famous for costly ointment,80 and called it is by Callimachus, Agathussa. Donysa, Pathmos in circuit 30 miles. Corasiæ, Lebinthus, Leros, Cynara, Sycinus, which beforetime was Oenoe, Heratia, the same that Onus, Casus otherwise Astrabe, Cimolus, alias, Echinussa, Melos81 with a towne, which Aristides nameth Byblis, Aristotle Zephyria, Callimachus Himallis, Heraclides Syphnus and Acytos. And this of all the Islands, is the roundest.82 After it83 Machia, Hypere sometime Patage, or after some Platage, now Amorgos, Potyægos.84 Phyle, Thera; when it first appeared, Calliste it was called.85 From it afterwards was Therasia plucked: and betweene those twaine soon after arose Automate, the same that Hiera: and Thia which in our aies appeared new out of the water neere Hiera. Ios is from Thera 25 miles. There follow Lea, Ascania, Anaphe, Hippuris, Hippurissusa.86 Astipalæa of free estate, in compasse 88 miles: it is from Cadiscus, a promontorie of Creta, 125 miles. From it is Platea, distant 60 miles. And from thence Camina, 38 miles. Then Azibnitha,87 Lanise, Tragia, Pharmacusa, Techedia, Chalcia, Calydna, in which are the townes Coos and Olymna.88 From which to Carpathus, that gave the name to the Carpathian sea, is five and twentie miles: and so to Rhodes with a Southerne wind.89 From Carpathus to Casos, seven miles: from Casos to Samonium a promontorie of Crete, thirtie miles. Moreover,90 in the Euboike Euripe, at the first entrance well neere of it, are the foure Islands Petaliæ, and at the end thereof, Atalante, Cyclades, and Sporades: confined and enclosed on the East with the Icarian sea-coasts of Asia; on the West, with the Myrtoan coasts of Attica; Northward, with the Ægean sea; and South, with the Creticke and Carthaginian seas: and take up in length two hundred myles. The gulfe Pagasicus hath before it, Eutychia, Cicynethus, and Scyrus abovesaid: but the utmost of all the Cyclades and Sporades, Scadira, themeusis, Irrhesia, Solimnia, Eudemia, Nea, which is consecrate to Minerva. Athos before it hath foure; Peparethus with a towne sometime called Euonos nine miles off: Scyathus five miles: and Iulios91 with a towne 88 miles off. The same is from Mastusia in Corinthos 75 miles. And is it selfe in circuit 72 miles. Watered it is with the river Ilissus. From thence to Lemnos 22 miles: and it from Athos 87. In compasse it containeth 22 miles and a halfe.92 Townes it hath, Hephæsstia and Myrina, into the market place whereof, the mountaine Athos casteth a shadow in the hotest season of Summer. Thassos a free State, is from it five miles: in times past called it was Æria93 or Æthria. From thence, Abdera in the Continent is twentie miles: Athos sixtie two: the Ile Samothrace as much, which is a free priviledged State, and lieth before Hebrus. From Imbrus two and thirtie myles: from Lemnus two and twentie miles and a halfe: from the coast of Thracia eight and twentie myles: in circuit it is 32 myles: and hath a rising of the hill Saoces for the space of ten myles: and of all the rest is fullest of havens and harboroughs.94 Callimachus calleth it by the old name Dardania: betweene Cherrhonesus and Samothrace is Halomesus, about fifteene myles from either of them: beyond lyeth Gethrone, Lamponia, Alopeconnesus not farre from Coelos, an haven of Cherrhonesus: and some other of no name or regard. In this sea let us rehearse also the desart and dispeopled Ilands, such as we can find out names for, to wit, Desticos, Larnos, Cyssicos, Carbrusa, Celathusa, Scylla, Draconon, Arconesus, Diethusa, Scapos, Capheris, Mesate, Æantion, Phaterunesos, Pateria, Calete, Neriphus and Polendus.

The fourth of those great seas in europe, beginning at Hellespont, endeth in the mouth of Moeotis. But briefly we are to describe the forme of the whole sea, to the end that the parts may be sooner and more easily knowne. The vast and wide Ocean lying before Asia, and driven out from Europe in that long coast of Chersonesus, breaketh in the maine with a small and narrow issue, and by a Firth of seven stadia (as has been said95) divideth Europe from Asia. the first streights they call Hellespontus. This way Xerxes the king made a bridge upon ships, & so led his armie over. From thence there is extended a small Euripus or arm of the sea for 86 miles space, to Priapus a citie of Asia, wheras Alexander the great passed over. From that place the sea groweth wide and broad, and againe gathereth into a streight: the largenesse thereof is called Propontis; the streights, Bosphorus,96 halfe a mile over: and that way Darius the father of Xerxes made a bridge over, and transported his forces. The whole length of this from Hellespont is 239 miles. From thence the huge main sea called Pontus Euxinus, and in times past Axenus, taketh up the space betweene lands farre dissite and remote asunder, and with a great winding and turning of the shores, bendeth backward into certaine horns, and lyeth out stretched from them on both sides, resembling evidently a Scythian bow. In the very mids of this bending, it joyneth close to the mouth of the lake Moeotis. And that mouth is called Cimmerius Bosphorus, two miles and a halfe broad. But betweene the two Bosphori, Thracius and Cimmerius, there is a direct and streight course betweene, as Polybius saith, of 500 myles. Now the whole circuit of all this sea, as Varro and all the old writers for the most part doe witnes, is 2150 miles. Nepos Cornelius addeth thereto 350 miles more. Artemidorus maketh it 2919 miles. Agrippa 2360 miles. Mutianus 2865 miles. In like sort, some have determined & defined the measure on Europe side, to be 1478 miles and a halfe: others 1172 miles.97 M. Varo taketh his measure in this manner: From the mouth of Pontus to Apollonia, 188 miles and a halfe: to Calatis as much. Then to the mouth of Ister 125: to Borysthenes 250: to Cherrhoensus, a towne of the Heracleates, 375 miles. To Panticapæus, which some call Bosphorus, the utmost coats of Europe, 222 miles and a halfe: which being put in a grosse summe together, 1336 miles and a halfe.98 Agrippa measureth thus: from Bizantium to the river Ister 560 miles: then to Panticapæum 630: from thence the very lake Moeotis taking into it the river Tanais, running out of the Riphæan hils, is supposed to beare the compasse of 1306 miles, beeing the furthest bound betweene Europe and Asia. Others againe make 112599 miles. But surely from his mouth to the mouth of Tanais, and take a streight course, it is 375 miles without question. The inhabitants of that coast, have been named in the description and mention of Thrace, as farre as to Istropolis:100 now from thence, the mouthes of Ister. This river arising among the hills of Abnoba, a mountaine of Germany, over-against Rauricum a towne in Gaul, passing many a mile beyond the Alpes, and through innumerable nations to wash Illyricum, taking the name of Ister after he hath received sixtie rivers, and the one halfe of them well neare navigable, rolleth into Pontus with sixe huge streamers. The first mouth of it is Peuces: soone after the Iland it selfe Peuce, of which the next channell tooke name, and is swallowed up of a great miere of 19 miles. Out of the same channell and above Astropolis, a poole is bred of 63 miles compasse, which they call Halmyris. The second mouth is called Naracustoma: the third Calostoma, neare the Iland Sarmatica: the fourth Pseudostoma, and the Iland Conopon Diabasis. After that Boreostoma, and Spireostoma. Each of these are so great, that by report the sea for 40 miles within it is over-matched with the same, and the fresh water may so farre be evidently tasted. From it, into the inland parts of the countrey, the people verily be all Scythians: but divers othr nations there be that inhabite the coasts next to the sea: in some places the Gete, called of the Romanes Daci:101 in others Sarmatæ, of the Greekes Sauromatæ; and among them, the Hamaxobij or Aorsi. elsewhere, the bastard and degenerate Scythians, who are come from base slaves, or else the Troglodites: and anon the Alani and Rhoxalani. But the higher parts betweene Danubius and the forrest Hercynius, as farre as to the Pannonian wintering harbours of Carnuntum, and the confines there of the Germans, the fielden country also & plains of Iazyge, the Sarmatians possesse. But the hills and forrests, the Dakes who were expelled by them, doe inhabite as farre as to the river Pathyssus from Marus; or peradventure it is Duria, dividing them from the Suevians and kingdome of Vannians. The parts against these, the Bastarnæ doe keepe; and from thence, other Germani. Agrippa hath set down that whole tract from Ister to the Ocean, to amount unto 2000 miles, and 400 lesse in breadth,102 to wit, from the deserts of Sarmatia to the river Vistula. The name of Scythians every where continualy runneth into Sarmatians and Germanes. Neither hath that old denomination remained in any others but those, who (as I have said)103 live farthest and in the edge of these nations, unknowne in manner to all men besides. But the townes next to Ister are Cremniscos, and Æpolium: the mountaines Macrocrennij: the noble river Tyra, giving name to the towne, whereas before-time it was called Ophiusa. Within the same there is a spatious Iland, inhabited by the Tyragetæ. And it is from Pseudostomum, a mouth of Ister, 130 miles. Soone after be tthe Axiacæ, bearing the name after the river:104 beyond whom are the Crobyzi: the river Rhode: the creeke Sagaricus, and the haven Ordesus. And 120 myles from Tyra, is the great river Borysthenes; also a lake and people of that name: yea and a towne 15 miles within from the sea, called by auncient names Olbropolis, and Miletopolis. Againe, in the sea side, the haven or harbour of the Achæans: the Iland of Achilles, famous for the tombe of that worthie wight. And from it 135 miles,105 there is a demie Iland lying out acrosse in fashion of a sword, called Dromos Achilleos, upon occasion of his exercise there of running: the length whereof Agrippa hath declared to be 80 miles. All that tract throughout, the Taurisci, Scythians, and Sarmatians doe inhabite.106 Then the wild woodland countrey gave the name unto the sea Hylæum, which beareth hard upon it: the inhabitants are called Enæcadloæ.107 Beyond, is the river Panticapes, which divideth the Nomades and Georgians asunder : and soone after, Acesinus. Some writers doe shew, that Panticape togither with Borysthenes, runne togither in one confluent beneath Olbia, but they that write more exactly, doe name Hypanis. See how much they erred, who have described it in a part of Asia. It entreth into the sea with a mightie great ebbe and returne of the water, untill it be within five miles of Moeotis, compassing as it goeth a mightie deale of ground, and many nations. Then there is a gulfe or arme of the sea called Corcinites,108 and a river Pacyris. Townes, Naubarum and Carcine. Behind, is the lake Buges, let out into the sea by a great ditch. And Buges it selfe from Coretus (an arme or braunch of the lake Moeotis) is disjoyned, with a backe part full of crags and rocks. Rivers it receiveth, Buges, Gerrhus, Hypanis, comming all from divers quarters: for Gerrhus parteth the Basilides and Nomades. Hypanis, through the Nomades and Hyleans, falleth into Buges by a channell made by man's hand, but in his owne naturall channell into Corretus. The region of Scythia is named Sendica. But in Carcinites, Taurica beginneth: which also in times past was environed all about with the sea, wheresoever now there lie plaines and flat fields. But afterwards it mounteth up with huge hilles. Thirtie nations there be in it: and of them 24 by Inlanders. Six townes, Orgocyni, Caraseni, Assyrani, Tractari,109 Archilachitæ, and Caliordi. The very pith and crest of the hill, the Scytorauri doe hold. Bounded they are Westward, with Cherronesus: Eastward with the Scythian Satarchi. In the coast next to Carcinites are these townes; Taphræ, in the very streights of the demie Iland: then, Heraclea Cherronesos,110 endowed with franchises by the Romanes. Aforetime it was called Megarice, and is the most civile and fairest of all the rest of that tract, as retaining still the names and fashions of the Greekes, and is besides compassed with a wall of five miles about. Then, the promontorie Parthenium. A citie of the Tauri, Placia. The haven Symbolon : the promontorie Criu-metopon, over-against Charambes a promontorie of Asia, running through the middle of Euxinus, for the space of 170 miles: which is the cause especially that maketh the forme abovesaid of a Scythian bow. Nere to it, are many havens and lakes of the Tauri. The towne Theodosia, distant from Criu-metopon 122 myles, and from Chersonesus 165 miles. Beyond, there have beene townes, Cyte, Zephytium, Acre, Nymphræum, and Dia. And the strongest of them all by many degrees, standeth yet still in the very entrie of Bosphorus, namely, Panticapræum of the Milesians, from Theodosia 1035 miles: but from Cimertum, a towne situate above the Firth, a mile and a halfe as we have said. And this is all the breadth there that divideth Asia from Europe: which sometimes is passeable over most-what on foot, namely when the Firth is frozen and all an yce. The breadth of Bosphorus Cimmerius is 12 miles and a halfe. It hath upon it these townes, Hermisum, Myrmecium; and within it, an Iland Alopece. But along Moeotis from the farthest narrow land passage, which place is called Taphræ, unto the mouth of Bosphorus, it containeth 260 miles. On Taphræ side, the Continent within-forth is inhabited by the Anchetæ, among whome Hypanis springeth: and Neuri, where Borysthenes hath his head. Moreover, the Geloni, Thussagetæ, Budini, Basilidæ, and the Agathyrsi, with blew haire on their heads. Above them, the Nomades, and the Anthropophagi. On Buges side above Moeotis, the Sauromates and Essedones dwell. But along the borders even as farre as Tanais, the Moeotæ, of whome the lake was called, and the utmost on their backes the Arimaspi. Within a little appeare the Rhiphæan hills, and a countey called Pterophoros, for the resemblance of certaine wings or feathers, occasioned by the continuall fall of snow. A part of the world thus is condemned by dame Nature, and drowned in deep and thick darknesse, dwelling within no other houses but the workes of frozen cold, and the ycie harbours of the chilling Northerne wind. Behind those hills and beyond the North pole,111 there is a blessed and happie people (if wee may beleeve it) whom they call Hyperborei, who live exceeding long, and many fabulous and strange wonders are reported of them. In this tract are supposed to be the two points or poles112 about which th world turneth about, and the verie ends of the heavens revolution. For six moneths together they have one entire day, and night as long, when the Sunne is cleane turned from them: but their day beginneth not at th espring Æquinoctiall (as the leaud and ignorant common people doe imagine113) and so continueth to the Autumne: for once in the yeere, and namely at our mid-summer when the Sun entreth into Cancer, the Sunne riseth with them: and once likewise it setteth, even in mid-winter with us, when the Sunne entreth Capricorne. The countrey is open upon the Sunne, of a blissefull and pleasant temperature, void of all noisome and hurtfull aire. Their habitations bee in woods and groves, where they worship the gods both by themselves, and in companies and congregations: no discord know they; no sicknesse are they acquainted with. They never die, but when they have lived long enough: for when the aged men have made good cheere, and annointed their bodies with sweet ointments, they leape from off a certaine rocke into the sea. This kind of sepulture, of all others is most happie. Some Writers have seated them in the first parts of the sea-coasts in Asia, and not in Europe, for that indeed some be there resembling the like manners and customes, and even so situate, named Atocori. Some have set them just in the mids betweene both Sunnes, to wit, the setting of it with the Antipodes, and the rising of it with us: which cannot possibly be, considering so vast and huge a sea comming betweene. As for those that have placed them no where but in the sixe moneths day-light, have written thus much of them, That they sow in the morning, reape at noone, at sun-setting gather the fruits from the tres, and in the nights lye close shut up within caves. Neither may we make doubt of that nation, since that so many Authors doe testifie, That they were wont to send the first fruits of their corne, as farre as Delos to Apollo, whome above all others they honour. And virgins they were that had the carriage of this present; who for certaine yeeres were venerable, and courteously entertained of all nations, untill such time as upon breach of faithfull hospitalitie, they tooke up an order to bestow those sacred obations in the next marches of their neighbour borderers: and they againe to conveigh the same to their neighbours that confined upon them, and so forward as farre as to Delos. But soone after, this custome was for-let and cleane given over. The length of Sarmatia, Scythia, and Taurica, and of all that tact from the river Borysthenes, is 980 myles, the breadth 717, as M. Agrippa hath cast it. But I for my part suppose, that the measure of this part of the earth is uncertaine. But after the order which we have begun, let us go forward with the rest behind of all this Division: as for the petie seas thereof, we have verily shewed them alreadie.

Chap. XIII.

The Ilands Pontus.

Hellespont hath no Ilands to be spoken of, in Europe. In Pontus are two, a mile and a halfe from Europe, and 14 miles from the mouth of the river, to wit, Cyaneæ, of others called Symplegades; and by report of fables, they ran one into another: the reason was, because they being severed by a small space between, to them that enter the sea full upon them, they seemed twaine: but if they turned their eye a little aside from them, they made a shew as if they met together. On this side Ister there is one, pertaining to the Apolloniates, 80 miles from Bosphorus Thracius, out of which M. Lucullus brought Apollo Capitolinus. What were within the mouthes of Ister, we have declared alreadie. Before Borysthenes, is the abovenamed Achillea, the same is called Leuce and Macaron. This, our moderne Cosmographers in these dayes doe set 140 myles from Borysthenes: from Tyra 120: from the Iland Peuce 50. It is in compasse about, ten miles. The rest be in the gulfe Carcinites, namely Cephalonnesos, Rhospodusa, and Macra. I cannot passe by the opinion of many writers, before we depart from Pontus, who have thought that all the inland seas or Mediterranean, arise from that head, and not from the streights of Gades: and they lay for their ground an argument not without some good probabilitie, because out of Pontus the sea alwaies floweth, and never ebbeth againe.

But now wee are to depart from thence, that other parts of Europe may be spoken of: and when we are gone over the Rhiphaean hills, we must passe along close to the North Ocean, and keepe the left hand untill we come to Gades. In which tract, there are reported to be very many Ilands without names: of which, by the report of Timæus, there is one before Scythia called Bannomanna, distant from Scythia one daies sailing: into which, in the temperate season of spring, Amber is cast up to the shore by the waves of the sea. All the other coasts are no otherwise marked and knowne, but by uncertaine here-say. The North Ocean from the river Paropamisus, whereas it dasheth upon Scythia, Hecataus nameth Amalchium, which word in the language of that nation, signifieth Frozen. Philemon writeth, that the Cimbrians call it Morimarusa, i. Mortuum mare, [the dead sea,] even as farre as to the promontorie Rubeæ: but all beyond forward, Cronium. Xenophon Lampsacenus saith, That three dayes sailing from the Scythian coast, there is the Iland Baltia, of exceeding greatnes. The same doth Pythias name Basilia. There be also named the Iles Oonæ, wherein the inhabitants live of birds egges and otes. Others also, wherein men are borne with horse feet, called thereupon Hippopades.114 Others againe of the Panoti, who being otherwise naked, have mightie great eares that cover their whole bodies. And now forward we begin at the nation of the Ingevoni, the first of all the Germanes in those parts, to discover all upon more sure and evident report. There, is the exceeding great mountain Sevo, not inferiour to the high hills Riphæi, which maketh a mightie huge gulfe, even as farre as to the Cimbrians promontorie, called Codanus, and full it is of Ilands; of which, the goodliest of all is Scandinavia, the bignesse whereof is not yet discovered. A part onely thereof, as much as is knowne, the nation of Helleviones doth inhabite in 500 villages, and they call it, A second world. And as it is thouht, Enigia is not lesse a jote. Some say, that these parts as farre as to the river Vistula, is inhabited by the Sarmatians, Venetians, Scyrians, and Hirrians: also that the gulfe of the sea is called Clylipenus: and that in the mouth or entrace of it is the Iland Latris. Also that not farre from it, there is another arme of the sea bounding upon the Cimbrians. The promontorie of the Cimbrians shooting farre into the seas, maketh a demy Iland, which is called Cartris.115 From which coast, three and twentie Ilands have been discovered and knowne by the Romane armies. The noblest of them be Burchana, called of our countrey-men Fabaria, of the plentie of a pulse (called Beanes) growne there of it selfe unsowne. Likewise Glessaria, so called by the souldiers, of Amber; but of the barbarous people, Austrania: and besides them Actania. Along this sea-coast, untill you come to the river Scaldis, the Germane nations doe inhabite: but the measure of that tract cannot easily be declared, such unmeasurable discord and difference there is among writers. The Greekes and some of our owne country have delivered the coast of Germanie to be 2500 miles about. Agrippa again joining it with Rhetia & Noricum, saith, That it is in length 686 miles, and in breadth 268.116 And verily of Rhoetia alone, the bredth wel-nere is greater, at least-wise at the time that it was subdued, and the people departed out of Germanie: for Germanie many years after was discovered, and yet not all of it knowne throughly. But if it be lawfull to guesse, there will not be much wanting in the coasts and compasse, acording to the opinion of the Greekes; nor in the length set downe by Agrippa.

Chap. XIIII.


Of Germanes, there be five kinds. The Vinidili,117 part of whome be the Burgundians, Varini, Carini, and Guttones.A second sort, the Ingævones, part of whome be the Cimbri, Teutoni, and people of the Cauchi. The next to them be the Istævones, and part of them be the Cimbri. Then the midlanders, the Hermiones, among whome are the Suevi, Hermunduri, Chatti, and Cherusci. The fift are the Peucini, and Basternæ, bordering upon the above-named Dacæ. Faire rivers that run ito the Ocean, to wit, Guttalus, Vistillus or Vistula, Albas, Visurgis, Amisius, Rhenus, Mosa. And withinforth the Hircynium hill, inferiour to none in estimation, standeth to guard and enclose them.

Chap. XV.

Ilands in the Gaules Ocean.

Upon the very Rhene it selfe, for an hundred myles almost in length, lyeth the most noble Iland of the Batavi, and Cannenusates: as also others of the Frisians, Cauchians, Frisiabones, Stutij, and Marsalij, which are spread within Helius and Flevus. For so be the mouthes, into which Rhenus gushing, divideth it selfe: and is discharged from the North into certaine lakes: from the West, into the river Mosa. But in the middle mouth betweene, he entreth a small current and channell, and keepeth his owne name.

Chap. XVI.

England, and Ireland.

Over against this tract, lyeth Britannia, between the North and West: an Iland renowmed both in Greeke and Romane records. Opposite it is unto Germanie, Gaule, and Spaine, the greatest parts by farre of all Europe, and no small sea betweene. Albion it was sometime named, when all the Ilands were called Britanniæ, of which anon wee will speake. This Iland is from Gessoriacum,118 a coast towne of the Morini, fiftie miles, and take the next and shortest cut. In circuit, as M. Pitheas and Isidorus report, it containeth 3825 miles. And now for these 30 yeares well neare, the Romane captaines grow into farther knowledge thereof, and yet not beyond the forrest Caledonia, as neere as it is. Agrippa supposeth, that it is in length 800 miles, and in breadth 300. Also that Ireland is as broad, but not so long by 200 miles. This Iland is seated above it, and but a very short cut or passage distant from it, to wit, 30 miles from the people Silures. Of other Ilands in this Ocean, there is none by report, in compasse more than 125 myles. Now there be Orcades 40, divided asunder by small spaces betweene: Acmodæ 7, and 30 Hæbudes. Also betweene Britaine and Hibernia, Mona, Monapis, Ricnea, Vectis, Silmnus, and Andros: but beneath them, Siambis and Axantos: and on the contrarie side toward the Germane sea, there lye scattering the Glessariæ, which the later Greeke writers have named Electrides, for that Amber there, was engendred and bred. The farthest of all, which are known and spoke of, is Thule; in which there be no nights at all, as we have declared,119 about mid-summer, namely when the Sunne passeth through the signe Cancer; and contrariwise no daies in mid-winter: and each of these times they suppose, doe last sixe moneths, all day, or all night. Timaeus the Historiographer saith, That farther within-forth, and six dayes sailing from Britaine, there lyeth the Iland Mictis, in which white lead groweth: and, that the Britaines doe sail thither in winter vessels covered with leather round about and well sowed. There be that make mention of others beside, to wit, Scandia, Dumna, and Bergos, and the biggest of all the rest Nerigos, from which men saile to Thule. Within one daies sailing from Thule, is the frozen sea, named of some Cronium.

Chap. XVII.


All Gallia, by one name called Comata, is divided into three kinds of people, and those severed one from the other by rivers especially: to wit, Belgica, from Scaldis to Sequana: Celtica, from it to Garumna; and this part of Gallia is named Lugdunensis. From thence to the lying out of the mountaine Pyrenæus, Aquitania, called beforetime Aremorica. Agrippa hath made this reckoning and computation of all Gaule generally, to wit, lying between Rhene, Pyrenæus, the Ocean, and the hils Gebenna and Iura; whereby he excludeth Narbonensis Gallia, that is in length 420 myles, and in breadth 313.120 Next to Scaldis, there inhabited the utmost borders, the Toxandri, under many names. Then the Menapij, Morini, and Oromansici, joyning upon that tract or territorie which is called Gessoriacus, the Brinanni, Ambiani, Bellonici, and Hassi. But farther within-forth, the Castologi, Arrebatis, and Nervij, free states. The Veromandui, Sueconi, and Suessiones, likewise free.121 The Treviri free beforetime: the Lingones confederates: the Remi confederate also: the Mediomotrici, the Sequani, the Raurici, and Helvetij, Colonies twaine, Equestris, and Rauriaca. Moreover, of Germane nations in the same province that dwell neere Rhene, the Nemetes, Triviochi, and Vangiones: then the Ubij, Colonia, Agrippensis,122 Gugerni, Batavi, and those whome we spake of in the Ilands of Rhene.

Chap. XVIII.

Lugdunensis Gallia.

Lugdunensis Gallia, containeth the Lexovij, Velocasses, Galleti, Veneti, Abricatui, Osismij, and the noble river Ligeris: but a more faire and goodly demy-Iland, running forth into the Ocean, from the very marches of the Osismij, having in circuit 625 miles: with the neck thereof 125 miles broad. Beyond it, dwelle the Nannetes: within-forth the Hoedni confederates, the Carnuti likewise confederates, the Boij, the Senones, the Aulerici, surnamed Eburovices, and the Cenomannes and Meldi, free states. Parrhisij, Trecasses, Andegani, Viducasses, Vadicasses, Venelli, Cariosuelites, Drabhudi, Rhedones, Turones, Iresui, and Secusiani, free states, in whose countrey standeth the Colonie Lugudnum.

Chap. XIX.


To that province of Gaule which is called Aquitania, belong the Ambilatri, Anagnutes, Pictones, the Santones, Bituriges,123 named also Vibisci, Aquitani, whereof the province tooke name, and the Sediboniates. Then such as were enrolled into townships124 from divers parts, to wit, Bergerri, Tarbelli, who came under 4 ensigns, Cocossati, under 6 ensigns, Venami, Onobrisates, Belendi, and the forrest Pyrenæus. Beneath them, Monesi, Osquidiales, Mountainers, Sibyllates, Camponi, Bercorates, Bipedimui,125 Sassumini, Vellates, Vornates, Consoranni, Ausci, Elusates, Sottiates, Osquidates in the champion and plaine countrey,126 Succasses, Latusates, Basabocates, Vassei, Sennates, Cambolectri, Agesinales joyning to the Pictones.127 Then the Bituriges free, who are also called Cubi. Next to them, Lemovices, Arverni free, and Gabales.128 Againe, those that confine and border upon the province Narbonensis, the Ruthenes, Caduni,129 Autobroges,130 and the Petrogoti131 divided from the Tolosanes by the river Tarne. Seas about the coasts, upon Rhene the North Ocean: betweene it and Sequana, the Britaine Ocean: between it and Pyrenæus, the Gaule Ocean. Ilands many, to wit, of the Veneti, whch be called also Veneticæ: and in the gulfe of Aquitane, Uliarus.

Chap. XX.

The hither province of Spaine.

At the Promontorie of Pyrenæus beginneth Spaine; narrower not onely than Gaule, but also than it selfe (naturally) so huge a quantitie is wrought into it, whlles the Ocean of the one coast, the Iberian sea on the other, do cling and press the sides togither. The very hils of Pyrenæus, which from the East spread all the way to the Southwest, make Spaine shorter on the North side than the South. The next marches of this higher province is the same that the tract of Tarracon, namely from Pyrenæus along the Ocean, the forrest and mountaines of Vascones. And first in this part you find these townes: namely in the countrey of the Varduli, Olarso, Morosgi, Menosca, Vesperies, the port-towne Amanum, where now is Flaviobriga, and a colonie of nine cities.132 The region of the Cantabri, the river Sada, the port town of Victoria, inhabited by the Iuliobrigenses. From that place to the fountaines of Iberus fortie miles. The haven Biendium, the Origeni entermingled with the Cantabri.133 Their havens, Vesei and Veca:134 the countrey of the Astures, the town Noega, in the demie Island Persicus.135 And then the Countie Lucensis, and so from the river Navilubio, the Cibarci, Egovarri surnamed Namarini, Iadoni, Arrotiebae, the Promontorie Celticum. Rivers, Florius and Nelo. Celtici surnamed Neriæ: and above them the Tamarici, in whose demie Island are three altars called Sestianæ, dedicated to Augustus, Coepori, and the town Noela. The Celtici surnamed Præsamarci, and Cileni. Of Islands worth he naming, Corticata and Aunios. From the Cileni, the Countie towne of the Bracæ, Heleni, Gravij, the castle Tyde, all descended from the Greekes. The Islands Cicæ, the faire town Abobrica, the river Minius with a broad or wide mouth foure miles over, the Leuni, Seurbi, Augusta a towne of the Bracæ: and above them, Gallæcia, the river Limia. Also the river Durius, one of the greatest in Spaine, springing in the Pelendones countrey, and running hard by Numantia: and so on, through the Arevaci and Vaccæi, dividing the Vettones from Asturia, and the Gallæcians from Lusitania: and there also it keepeth off the Turduli from the Bracari. All this regin abovesaid from Pyrenæus, is full of metall mines, to wit, gold, silver, yron, lead, as well blacke as white, tinne.

Chap. XXI.


At the river Durius beginneth Lusitania, wherein are Turduli the old, Pesuri, the river Vaca. The towne Talabrica, the towne and river Minium. Townes, Conimbrica, Olisippo, Eburo, Britium. From whence there runneth out into the sea with a mightie cape the Promontorie, which some have called Artabrum; others, the Great; and many, Olissoponense of the towne, making a division of land, sea and aire above. In it is the side of Spaine determined and bounded, and from the compasse of it beginneth the forefront thereof.

Chap. XXII.

Islands in the Ocean.

Of the one hand is the North and Gaules Ocean: on the other, the West and Atlanticke Ocean. The shooting forth of the Promontorie aforesaid, some have reported to be 60 miles, others 90. From thence to Pyrenæus, there be writers not a few, who say it is 1250 miles, and that there is a nation of the Atabri, which never was, with a manifest errour. For they have set in this place by exchanging some letters the Artotrebæ, whome wee named before the promontorie Celticum. They have erred also and missed in certaine famous rivers. From Minius abovenamed (as Varro saith) Æminius is 200 miles distant (which some men take to bee elsewhere, and call it Limæa) named of men in old time Oblivionis, and whereof goeth many a tale. From Durius to Tagus it is 200 miles, and commeth betweene. This Tagus is a river much renowned for the sand that yeeld gold. 160 miles from it, the promontorie Sacrum runneth out from the middle front in manner of Spaine: and 14 miles Varro saith it is from it to the mids of Pyrenæus. But from Ana, by which we have seperated Lusitania from Bætica, 226 miles: adding thereto from Gades 102 miles. Nations, Celtici, Varduli, and about Tagus, the Vettones. From Ana to Sacrum, the Lusitanes. The memorable townes, from Tagus in the coast side, Olisippo, of good note for the mares that conceive there by the West wind.136 Salacia with the addition of Urbs Imperatoria, and Merobrica: the Promontorie Sacrum, and another called Cæneus. Townes Ossonoba, Balsa, and Myrtius. The whole province is divided into three counties or judiciall courts of Assises, Emeritensis, Pacensis and Scalabitanus. It containeth in all five and fortie States, wherein be five Colonies, one burrough towne of Romane cittizens, three enfranchised with the liberties of old Latium. Stipendiaries or Tributaries, sixe and thirtie. Moreover, the Colonies bee thus named: Augusta Emerita: and upon the river Ana, Metallinensis, Pecensis, Norbensis, names also Cæsarina. To it are layed and inrolled Castra Iulia and Castra Cæcilia. The fift is Scalabis, called Præsidium Iulium. The free borogh of Roman citisens, Olyssippo, named also Felicitas Iulia. Towns of the old Latium libertie, Ebora, which likewise was called Liberalitas Iulia: Myrtilis also and Salacia which wee have spoken of. Of Tributaries, such as I am not loth to name, beside the abovesaid in the additions of Bætica, Augstobrigenses, Ammienses, Aranditani, Axabricenses, Balsenses, Cæsarobricenses, Caperenses, Caurenses, Colarni, Cibilitani, Concordienses, the same that Bonori, Interausenses, Lancienses. Mirobrigenses, syrnamed Celtici, Medubricenses, the same that Plumbarij, Ocelenses who also are Lancienses, Turtuli, named Barduli and Tapori. M. Agrippa hath written, that Lusitania, together with Asturia and Gallæcia, is in length 540 iles, and in breadth 526. But all Spain from the two Promontories of Pyrenæus along the seas, taketh up in circuit of the whole coast 2900 miles, and by others, 2700. Overagainst Celtiberia bee very many Islands, called of the Greekes Cassiterides, for the plentie of lead which they yeeld: and just against the promontorie of the Arrotrebæ, sixe named Deorum [i. of the gods] which some have called Fortunatæ. But in the very point or cape of Bætica, from the mouth of the firth, 75 miles, lieth the Island Gades, twelve miles long, as Polybius writeth, and three miles broad. It is from the maine, where it is neerest, lesse than *** 700 paces, in other parts above 7 miles. The whole island it selfe containeth the space of fifteene miles in circuit. It hath within it a towne of Romane cittizens named Augusta, Urba Iulia Gaditania. On that side that regardeth Spain, within 100 paces, there lieth another Island, three miles long, and a mile broad, wherein beforetime was the towne of Gades. The name of this Island, after Ephorus and Philistides, is Erythia; but according to Tymaus and Silenus, Aprodisias: the naturall home bred inhabitants call it Iunonis. The bigger of these two Gades, as Timæus saith, was by them called Cotinusa, our countreymen name it Tartessos, the Carthaginians  Gadir, which in the Punic language signifieth †† the number of seven. Erythia the other was called, because the Tyrians, who were the first inhabitants, were reported to have had their first beginning out of the red sea Erythræum. Some thinke that Geryon here dwelt, hee whose droves of cattell Hercules had away. There bee againe that thinke how it is another, overagainst Lusitania, and there sometime so called.

Chap. XXIII.

The measure of all Europe.

Having finished our circuit about Europe, we must now yeeld the totall summe and complete measure of it in the whole, that such as are desirous of knowledge, bee not to seeke in any one thing. Artemidorus and Isidorus have set downe the length thereof from Tanais to Gades 84014 miles.137 Polybius hath put downe the breadth of Europe, from Italie to the Ocean 1150 iles, for as then the largenesse thereof was not knowne. Now the very breadth of Italie alone by it selfe (as we have shewed) is 1220 miles to the alpes: from whence by Lions to the Brittaine part of the Morini, which way Polybius seemeth to take his measure, is 1168 miles. But the more certaine measure and the longer is directed from the said Alpes to the West and the mouth of the Rhene, through the place called Castra Legionum Germaniæ, 1243 miles. Now from hence forward will we describe Affricke and Asia.

Text Decoration


The running title is "The fourth Booke of // Plinies Naturall Historie. " This page uses the font SPIonic for Greek.

1. Cestines: a typo for Cestrines.

2. Dasserians above-named: in Book III, sect. 145, where Holland calls them Dassaretes, closer to Pliny's Dassaretas.

3. Denthelates: thus some editions of Pliny's Latin (more or less), following Ptolemy, for the more usual Denselatae (and variants).

4. Chimæra: thus Holland for Chimera.

5. Receiving ... wide sea ... 39 miles: Holland misunderstands the passage and (possibly consequently) omits part of it. The gulf, though only 50 feet wide, "receives the great sea". 39: as often with numbers, readings vary: 36, 37, or 39. (In general, I will not note variants in numbers unless they are either a mistake of Holland's or I have some other reason to make a note at that point in the text.)

6. Lake Pandosia: reading with Dalechamps "lacus Pandosia" for the more like "locus Pandosia": i.e., a place that was once the town or fortress of Pandosia, now in ruins or destroyed.

7. Which place is called Dioryctus: i.e., the canal that turned the isthmus into an island until it silted up.

8. Pleucon, Halysarna: Halysarna is one of the variants readings for the town here, usually given as Halicarna in modern editions. I do not know where Holland got Pleucon, if it is not just a typo; read instead Pleuron.

9. Drymæa: thus Hermolaus out of Pausanias. Readings of this list of names vary; see a scholarly edition of the Latin text of Pliny.

10. The prince Caius: i.e., Caligula. On these projects, see Sueton. Julius Caesar 44.3; Plutarch, Caesar58.8; Dio, 44; Sueton. Caligula 21; Sueton. Nero 19.2; Dio, 63.16.

11. Two myles: thus Dalechamps; Chifflet, five, which Hardouin follows; Mayhoff, 15 (out of Curtius).

12. For the fame...account of years: a peculiar (and amplified) translation of the text of Pliny.

13. Passage by water to the towns...: The edition Holland is mostly following -- almost certainly the 1563 Lyons -- leaves out the number in the phrase navigatur VI p. With the number in, the translation would be: the river Alpheus, navigable for 6 miles; the towns Aulos and Leprion; the promontory....

14. Platanestus: following Hermolaus's emendation to Platanistus, rather than the Platanodes of the manuscripts. Platanistus is a different place, and not on the coast, according to Strabo. Cf. the Loeb translations of Strabo XIV.5.3 and VII.3.16.

15. Place and forest called Delos: Not Delos, but Helos. The forest is Holland's addition; this is another of the places Pliny calls "loci", that is, a "former place". Helos was destroyed by the Lacedaemonians and its inhabitants enslaved (hence, it is alleged, Helots).

16. Paomisus: Holland's or his printer's reading for Pamisus or Pamissus.

17. Zanclum: i.e., Zancle.

18. Epidaurus...Zarax: an error. Rather, Epidaurus surnamed Limera, and Zarax.

19. Argos Inachium or Dipsium: Inachium from the river, presumably; Dipsium from its desirable location? Either to distinguish it from Argos Hippium above.

20. Cænitas: Following Hermolaus's reading. Hardouin, and most editors following him, Schoenitas

21. Drymodis: thus the edition Holland is following; read Drymodes with the manuscript and later editions.

22. Palantium: Holland has Palatium, but that is clearly a mistake for the Palantium, Pallantium, Palentium, etc., of the printed editions. Hardouin: "Romae palatium, de Arcadici oppidi Παλλαντίον nomine, ab Evandro rege appellatum esse, quod nomen consecuta aetas, duabus submotis litteris l et n, extulerit, auctor est etiam Pausanias, Arcad. lib. VIII [8.43.2] et Dionys. Halic. Antiq. Rom. lib. V, pag. 25. Virgilius [Aeneid VIII] Pallanteum oppido nomen fecit: Solinus quoque, c. I, pag. 2, et cap. VII, pag. 22" (Hardouin).

23. Berubinadia: readings in this list of towns vary, but I do not now where Holland got Berubinadia, if it is not a misreading; read Bembinadia; variants Henbinadia, Hembinadia, Thembinadia, etc.

24. Hyllene: read Cyllene; again, it's not clear where Holland got his reading.

25. Parthenians: read Parthenius. (Holland translates Greek that isn't there, Παρθένιον ὄρος.)

26. Freedom: for (at least) the second time. See Plutarch, T. Flamininus, 12.8.

27. Said measure: 12 miles, in sect. 14, where the city is called Pylus. (Mayhoff emends it here to Pylus in his edition).

28. Or against Pagae: that is, "oer against Pagae".

29. Three miles: this seems to be a mistake of Holland; read six miles.

30. 52 miles: thus Dalechamps; the mss and most editions, 55.

31. Callirhoe, and Enneacreunos: this is one spring, Callirhoe Enneacreunos; the comma of early editions of Pliny's Latin was wiped out by Hardouin.

32. Potamos and Brauron: the 1524 Cologne edition leaves out an intermediate town, Steria. Other early editions make this part of the name of Brauron, as Steribrauron (and variants).

33. Psammate: by mistake (apparently Holland's) for Psamathe or variants. ("Oedipodium" more correctly "Oedipodia". Pausanias says it's where Oedipus washed off his father's blood, 9.18.6, and that near it is the tomb of Hector son of Priam.)

34. Grephis: or (more probably) Acraephia.

35. Letegetes: thus Holland incorrectly for Lelegetes in all editions.

36. Of whom the name Greece: Thus Pliny; Debuit, notes Hardouin, sic potius reddere, qui prius Græci vocabantur.

37. Homer: in the Iliad, II.684.

38. So named ... Trachin: Reading with Dalechamps Thermopylarum angustiae, aquarum argumento, IIII m. inde Heraclea Trachin dicta est for the textual Thermopylae angustiae, quo argumento IIII ... Trechin dicta est.

39. Eurotas: Hermolaus's emendation, out of Strabo, for the textual [H]Orcon. 1634 and 1635 have, more correctly, Eurotus.

40. Homer: in the Iliad, II.751-754.

41. Andaristenses: this is a very minority variant reading for Audaristenses. Because Holland frequently confuses n and u, it's hard to say whether this is his mistake or the mistake of an edition he's following; but most likely it is his mistake, since the early editions I've seen have u (following the emendation of Hermolaus out of Ptolemy). MSS have Adaristenses, Ataristenses, etc.

42. Coronæi: Thus early editions for the more probable Toronæi of most mss.

43. Pherga: Seemingly Holland's mistake for Phlegra Hardouin, quoting Herodotus, says that the two towns were on the same spot, Pallene succeeding Phlegra.

44. Holophyxus the creeke, and Mecyberna: the reading following the pointing of early editions of Plinys; rather, read Holophyxus, and the creeke Mecyberna, "non ut vulgo in libris ad hunc diem editis: Olophyxos sinus, Mecyberna: quum neque Olophyxos cujuspiam sinus appellatio sit: et sequens vox, oppido, id quod proxime antecedit non esse oppidum, abunde declaret. Est autem Mecybernæus sinus, qui postea Mecyberna excisa Toronicus a Torone est cognominatus..." and much more out of Hardouin, in a reasonably good mood (for a classicist). "Creeke", here as elsewhere, is the Latin sinus.

45. Phiscella: or Myscella.

46. Xerxes: cf. Herodotus Polym. ss. 23 and 24, and the note on 23 by How and Wells. (Ignore Macan.)

47. Palæotrium: thus Gelenius in the Basel edition of 1554 for the more usual Palæ[h]orium.

48. Paulus Aemelius: see Livy, end of XLIV and beginning of XLV. Plutarch says the victory was gained in one hour, It presumably took longer to sack the 72 cities.

49. Diloncae: seems to be Holland's mistake for Doloncae (or Dolongae).

50. Ister ... Scythians: the text (and the pointing) of this passage varies from edition to edition ("edition", here as elsewhere, meaning the Latin editions, not the editions of Holland). In general, I will not note these variants, unless they interest me for some reason, or unless, as above, the mistake is Holland's.

51. Oestima: sc. Oesyma. The t is Holland's mistake (or misreading).

52. Polis: a Holland invention. There is a crux here; mss read Batos; Hardouin follows Hermolaus in emending to Datos, citing Herodotus, IX.75 (see also the note from How & Wells). Dalechamps' Pastos evokes a derisory note from Hardouin. Polis may be Holland's equivalent of "come back and fix this".

53. Bisons: sc. Bistons. Holland's error.

* Or 100000. [Thus Holland. Dalechamps has centum viginti mill. hominum. Hardouin has a longish and fairly interesting note on the question. The reading of 10,000 is, however, that of the manuscripts, and thus we shall leave it. Herodotus supports the figure of 10,000: see the account of the reckoning of Xerxes' army, VII.59-60.]

54. Macron Tichos: i.e., Μακρὸν τεῖχος, "long wall", reasonably enough.

55. Geranis, cranes: and indeed, γέρανος = crane.

56. Old soldiers: that is, Deultum is now a colony -- a sort of retirement community -- for veterans.

57. 555...40: readings vary on the 555, but mss agree on 60 where Holland (and the editions of his day) have 40.

58. Tereus: On Tereus, Procne and Philomela, see Hyginus, XXXXV and Ovid, Metam. VI. Aldrovandus prosaically suggests it is rather the prevailing north wind that drives the swallows away.

59. Like a hart: that is, a heart, hence Cardia.

** Macron-Tichos. [Above, sect. 43.]

60. Said before: he hasn't said either one before, in any text that has survived, although he mentions the Hellespont several times in Book II. He does mention it again later in this book (sect. 75), where he says again that he has said it before. Possibly the phrase here is a corruption of the text.

61. Mastisia: that is, Mastusia. It's sometimes difficult to tell whether Holland's versions of Pliny's versions of Greek are mistakes, intentional, or come from his source edition. Holland frequently substitutes i for u. This is sometimes reasonable on phonetic grounds. In this case, however, u represents not υ (commonly transliterated y) but ου.

62. Hecuba's tomb: see Pomponius Mela, II.ii, "Est et Cynossema, tumulus Hecubae, sive ex figura canis, in quam deciderat, humuli nomine accepto" (Grovonius's translation). In Golding's (1585) English, "There is also Dogs-grave, the Tombe of Queene Hecuba, which place receyveth that homely name, either of the shape of a Dogge, whereinto Hecuba is reported to have beene transformed, or else of the misfortune that shee fell into." Cf. Ovid, Metam. XIII.559

63. Cherronesus: Holland throughout changes Pliny's Cherronesus to the more familiar Chersonesus, except here. I doubt there's any reason behind it; most likely an oversight.

64. Aegean: Cf. Festus; in the online French, "AEGEUM MARE. On l'appelle ainsi, parce que les îles y sont nombreuses, de manière à paraître semblables à des chèvres à ceux qui les voient de loin ; soit encore parce qu'Égée, reine des Amazone y périt ; soit enfin parce qu'Égée, père de Thésée, s'y précipita.".

65. Jupiter Cassiopæus: rather, Jupiter Cassios, as Pliny has it; the town taking its name from the temple. It was one of the temples that sponsored music contests; cf. Sueton. Nero, 22.3.

66. Homer: Odyssey V.34, Σχερίην ἐρίβωλον ἵκοιτο, Φαιήκων ἐς γαῖαν.

67. Before Leucadia, Sybota: an interpolation of early editors attempting to make sense of the difficult and variable text at this point.

68. Named beforetime: Cythera, that is, was beforetime named Porphyris.

69. Macaros: that is, as though τῶν Μακάρων, "of the blessed" (the adjective is properly used of the gods).

70. Mytinos: thus Dalechamps (possibly a typo) for the Cylissos, Gylysos, etc. of most editions; Mayhoff Tylisos, Hermolaus Cytinos.

71. Cia: thus Gelenius (Basel, 1554) and editions that follow his; mss and most other editions, Dia.

72. Rhamnus: 1601 has Rhanmus. Rhamnus or Ramnus, following Gelenius and Dalechamps (and also Mayhoff). Other Latin editions have Aradus; most mss, Aranus.

73. Pæcessa: thus Holland (or his printer) in all editions, for Poeessa (and variants).

74. Bridge: Hardouin in his edition of 1685 says "Qui pons hodieque exstat, longitudine CCL. pass.", but doesn't tell us how he knows this.

75. Lying round...Cyclades: that is, literally ranged in a circle, whence their name (not, as modern idiom would have it, lying about doing nothing).

76. Delos appeared on a sudden: Παρὰ τὸ δῆλον, and cf. Servius on Aen. III.76. The edition on Perseus lacks a passage quoted by Hardouin: "Delos", he makes Servius say, "dicitur, quia diu latuit, et postea apparuit. Nam δῆλον Græci manifestum dicunt. Vel quod verius est, quia quum ubique Apollinis responsa obscura sint, manifesta illic dabantur oracula."

77. Mutians: thus all editions of Holland, for Mutianus (or Mucianus, the received spelling).

78. Ios: Holland follows Hermolaus, who removes a word (and hence an island). The manuscripts have Scryos Ios a Naxo....

79. Homer: Broterus notes in his 1779 edition "Diurna anni 1772 nuntiavere, flagrantibus Russici et Turici imperii bellis, inventum ibi esse a comite Grunn Homeri tumulum, in quo maximi poetarum cineres adhuc sederent, qui, quum apertus est tumulus, decidere: scriptoriam quoque supellectilem marmoream in eo inventam. Altum vero servatum postea de re tam insigni silentium fabulam esse aut mendacium prodidit", a conclusion shared by most.

80. Ointment: telinum. See Book XIII, sect. 13. It was made of fenugreek and other herbs.

81. Melos: all editions of Holland have Delos here, a typo or a misreading. Now Milo.

82. Roundest of all the islands: here let me jump in with every editor of Pliny and point out that Melos is not in fact very round, while Cimolos, next to it, is nearly circular. Perhaps the phrase has been misplaced at some time during the transmission of the text. It's somewhat astonishing that no editor has [yet] simply moved the phrase, as they are wont to do with far larger pieces of text in other cases on far weaker grounds.

83. After it: reading, with some manuscripts and with most early editions, "Post Machia" for the "Buporthmachia" of some manuscripts. Mayhoff "Buporthmos, Machia", following the earlier Teubner edition of von Jan, which takes the reading from a conjecture in the 1851 editon of Julius Sillig.

84. Potyægos: thus all editions of Holland, a misreading of Polyægos (and variants, but all having an "l") of manuscripts and editions.

85. Calliste it was called: 1634 and 1635 have "Thera; when it first appeared it was called Calliste".

86. Hippurissusa: thus some early editions of Pliny. "Addunt libri vulgati Hippurissusa; sed geminato perperamm, ut per se liquet, unius ejusdemque nomine: quamobrem posterius expunximus", says the editor of the 1828 Paris edition, although he certainly wasn't the first to expunge it.

87. Azibnitha: thus all editions of Holland forAzibintha.

88. In which the towns Coos and Olymna: this cannot be a correct translation of the textual in qua oppidum Coos Colymna a qua Carpathum.... It follows rather the unnecessary emendation of Dalechamps, in qua oppida Coos Colymna (Colymna, Olymna, Eulimna are among the number of variant readings found here).

89. So to Rhodes: Holland omits the figure of 50 miles: "and so 50 miles to Rhodes with a southern wind". This is in any case of course is an illogical trope; it's 50 miles with or without the southern -- "African", says Pliny -- wind.)

90. Moreover: introducing Pliny's summary of the previous sections, not new information. It is difficult to say whether Holland's frequent use of the word in this sense is an idiolect, a bad translation, or simply inattention.

91. Iulios: I do not know where Holland got this reading for the Imbros of the text. Possibly in a hurry he read the Greek of Strabo as Roman characters? Ιμβρος may look something like Iulios, depending on the Greek font. Τhis is a stretch, but comprehensible to those who read 16th-century editions of Greek texts.

92. 22 miles and a half: thus (or 22) the editions of Holland's day. Later editors emend to or restore from the manuscripts various other more reasonable figures: CXII, CXV.D, etc.

93. Æria, Æthria: thus Dalechamps for Aeria and Aethria (i.e., Aëria and Aëthria, A)eri/a).

94. Fullest of havens and harbors: Before Hardouin, print editions of Pliny read here portuosissima for the manuscripts' inportuosissima: of all the islands, it is the least accessible.

95. Has been said: in sect. 49.

96. Bosphorus: sc. Thracius Bosphorus.

97. 1478...1172: 1601 has "4078....11072". 1634 and 1635 "4078....1172". The text of Pliny, "1478...1172" (allowing for the vagaries of the textual transmission of numbers).

98. 1336 miles and a halfe: the numbers as given here don't, of course, add up to 1336 miles and a half, but to 1349.5. As always, it's best to consult an annotated edition of the Latin text if interested in the numbers that Pliny may have had.

99. 1125: all editions of Holland have "11025".

100. Inhabitants of Thrace mentioned: above, sects. 44 and 45.

101. Gete...Daci: i.e., the Getae. They may not have been the same as the Dacians, or they may have been a subset of Dacians. It depends on which author you trust.

102. 400 less: the text is probably corrupt here, and editions vary. Either Holland's reading, which is not likely, but follows, more or less, the Basel edition; or 3600 (400 less than 4000); or 4400 (400 more than 4000); or something like that.

103. As I have said: Holland's interpolation, not in the text.

104. After the river: i.e., Ἀξιάκυς. "Hodie Bog", says Hardouin.

105. 135 miles: thus Dalechamps for 125 of the mss and most editions.

106. Taurisci, Scythians, and Sarmatians: following Hermolaus; more probable, "Sardi Scythæ Siraci".

107. Enæcadloæ: Hardouin suggests "Inde Hylæi".

108. Corcinites: sc. Carcinites; variants include Garcinitis; I'm not sure where Holland got Corcinites.

109. Tractari: the mss have Stactari. See a critical edition of Pliny.

110. Heraclea Cherronesos: all editions of Holland have a comma between the words, and "franchises" in the next clause. Holland apparently took the town as two towns.

111. Beyond the North pole: "ultra Aquilonem". I'm not going to step into this one.

112. Two points or poles: "cardines". Pliny does not say "two".

113. Lewd and ignorant people: Hardouin, in a long note, points out that Pliny is wrong in the assertion that follows, and that Pomponius Mela is correct. Since Pliny had a healthy respect for Pomponius Mela, and therefore "venit igitur aliquando in mentem, levi trajectione voculæ molliri, seu refingi eam commode sententiam posse: 'ut non imperiti dixere'. "

114. Hippopades: Thus Holland, all editions; sc. Hippopodes.

115. Cartris: or Carthris, Thartris, Tastris. Jutland.

116. 268: thus the Cologne edition of 1524; mss 148; Hardouin and most modern editions, 248.

117. Vindili: thus Gelenius 1554 (and the Castigationes of 1535). More familiar to us as Vandals.

118. Gessoriacum: Boulogne-sur-Mer. Peutinger: Geosoriaco, quod nunc Bononia.

119. As we have declared: in Book II.

120. Agrippa...: Editions prior to Hardouin's (and therefore the text in front of Holland) omit part of this passage, which should read something like "the coast of Gaul from the Rhine to the Pyrenees is 1800 miles [or 1750, or various other readings]; the length, from the ocean to Gebenna and the Jura (and thus excluding Gallia Narbonensis) is 420...". There are other textual and grammatical difficulties lying about here.

121. Suessiones, likewise free. The Treviri: here Holland skips a line of the text in his translation: the Ulmanectes (free), Tungri, Suuci, Frisiavones, Baetasi, and Leuci (free).

122. Colonia, Agrippensis: sic.

123. Santones, Bituriges: both free peoples, writes Pliny. I do not know why Holland leaves this out of his translation.

124. Townships: Convenae. Lugdunum Convenarum is today St-Bertrand-de-Comminges (hurray!). (Holland's translation is misleading here.) One might think that the Tarbelli went to Tarbes, but it was the Begerri who founded Turba, today Tarbes; the Tarbelli founded Dax (maybe), etc.

125. Bipedimui: thus, more or less, the 1524 Cologne edition.

126. Osquidates in the plain: distinguished presumably from the Osquidales (as Holland has it, probably by mistake for Osquidates) of the mountains, just above.

127. Agesinales joyning to the Pictones: following the pointing of the editions of Holland's day. Modern editors following Mayhoff join the Pictones to the Bituriges and make the Cambolectri Agessinates one people.

128. Gabales: Mayhoff adds before the Gabales the "Vellavi, free".

129. Caduni: thus all editions of Holland. I have not traced the reading; I suspect it may be a mistake of Holland or his printers for Cadurci (or Cathurci, Dalechamps). Their main city was supposedly Cahors, that of the Rutheni, Rhodez. (The Lemaire edition, edited by Ansart, is full of such information, especially about the Gaulish portions of Pliny.)

130. Autobroges: a Holland-ish mistake for Antobroges. Their city may have been Agen. Scaliger wants them to be Nitiobriges, Detlefsen and Mayhoff make them Nitiobroges. Hardouin disapproved of the Scaliger reading and retains Antobroges: "Sic libri omnes, a quibus discedere mihii religio est". d'Anville postulates that the two are names for one people.

131. Petrogoti: sc. Petrocori; their city, Périgueux.

132. Flaviobriga and a colonie: following the editions of his day and reading "ubi nunc Flaviobrica, colonia civitatium novem, regio Cantabrorum" for "ubi nunc Flaviobrica colonia. civitatium novem regio Cantabrorum"; sc. "where now is the colony Flaviobriga. The nines cities of the region of the Cantabri. The river Sauga" etc. " "Praepostere inquit Hardouin interpunctio prius omnia miscebat. Quis coloniam novem civitatum umquam inaudivit? Ipsam regionem Cantabrorum civitatibus novem constare ait, sic. lib. III, c. 3." Sada is a typo for the Sanda (Broterus) or Sanga of the editions of Holland's day.

133. Origeni entermingled with the Cantabri: reading Origeni mistis Cantabris for Oregnomesci e Cantabris.

134. Vesei and Veca: reading with the editions of Holand's day Vesei Vueca for Veseiasueca, Veresueca, etc.: one port.

135. Noega in the demie Island Persicus: possible, I suppose, but almost certainly a mistake. Rather "Noega. On a peninsula, the Paesici".

136. West wind: see Book VIII.

*** Lesse than 3 quarters of a mile.

Or Gadiz.

†† Septem, or, as some read, Septum [sc. Saeptum], i. a parke or enclosure.

137. 84014: the 84 from the editions of Holland's day, the order of magnitude is Holland's own. Sc. 8414

This page is by James Eason,.