Philemon Holland, translator (1601): C. Plinius Secundus The Historie of the World. Book V. (Pages 90-???)

Meaningless text decoration





The description of Affrike.

AFfrike the Greekes have called Lybia, even all that tract from whence the Lybian sea before it beginneth, and endeth in the Ægyptian. No part of the earth receiveth fewer gulfes and armes of the sea, in that long compasse of crooked coasts from the West. The names as well of the nations as townes there, be of all others most hard to bee pronounced, unlesse it bee in their owne tongues: and againe, they bee castles and forts for the part that they dwell in.1

Chap. I.


AT the beginning, the lands of Mauritania, untill the time of C. Cæsar [i. Caligula] sonne of Germanicus, were called kingdoms: but by his crueltie devided it was into two provinces.2 The utmost promontorie of the Ocea is named of the Greekes Ampelusia. The townes therin were Lissa and Cotes3 beyond Hercules pillars. Now in it is Tingi, sometime built by Antaus:4 and afterwards by Claudius Cæsar when he made a Colonie of it, called it was Traducta Iulia.5 It is from Belone a town in Bætica, by the next and neerest passage over sea thirtie miles. Five and twentie miles from it in the Ocean coast standeth a Colonie erected by Augustus, now Iulia Constantia, exempt from the dominion and jurisdiction of the kings of Zilis:6 and commanded to goe for law and justice as farre as to Baetica. And two and thirtie miles7 from it, Lixos made a Colonie by Claudius Cæsar, wherof in old time there went many fabulous and lowd lying tales. For, there stood (they say) the roiall palace of Antæus: there was the combate betweene him and Hercules: there also were the gardens and hort-yards of the Hesperides. Now there floweth thereinto out of the sea a certain creeke or arme thereof, and that by a winding channell, wherin men now take it that there were Dragons serving in good steed to keepe and guard the same. It encloseth an Island within it selfe, which (notwithstanding the tact thereby be somewhat higher) is only not overflowed by the sea tides. In it there standeth erected an altar of Hercules: and setting aside certaine wild Olives, nothing els is to be seene of that goodly grove, reported to beare golden apples.8 And in good faith lesse may they make a wonder at the strange lies of Greece, given out of these, and the river Lixus, who would but thinke how of late our countreymen have delivered some fables, as monstrous welneere of the same things: to wit, that this is a most strong and mightie cittie, and bigger than great Carthage: moreover, that it is situate over against it, and an infinite way well neere from Tingi: and other such like, which Cornelius Neposhath beene most eager to beleeve. From Lixus fortie miles in the midland parts of the maine, standeth Babba, another Colonie of Augustus, called by him Iulia in the field or Champain: also a third 75 miles off, called Banasa, but now it hath the addition of Valentia.9 35 miles from it is the towne Volubile, just in the mid way betweene both seas. But in the coast and borders thereof, 50 miles from Lixus, there runneth Subur a goodly plenteous river, and navigable, neere to the Colonie Banasa. As many miles from it is the towne Sala, standing upon a river of the same name, neere now unto the wildernesse, much infested and annoied with whole heards of Elephants, but much more with the nation of the Autololes, through which lieth the way to Atlas the most fabulous mountaine of all Affricke. For writers have given out, that this hill arising out of the very middest of the sea sands, mounteth up to the skie, all rough, illfavoured, and overgrowne on that side that lieth to the shore of the Ocean, unto which it gave the name: and yet the same is shadowie, full of woods, and watered with veines of spouting Springs that way which looketh to Affricke, with fruitfull trees of all sorts, spring of the owne accord, and bearing one under another, in such sort, that at no time a man can want his pleasure and delight to his full contentment. Morover, that none of the inhabitants there are seene all day long: all is still and silent, like the fearefull horror in desert wildernesse: and as men come neerer and neerer unto it, a secret devotion ariseth in their harts: and besides this feare and horror, they are lifted up above the clouds, and even close to the circle of the Moone. Over and besides, that the same hill shineth oftentimes with many flashes of fires, and is haunted with the wanton lascivious Ægipanes and Satyres, whereof it is full, that it resoundeth with noise of haut-boies, pipes, and fifes, and ringeth againe with the sound of tabers, timbrels, and cymbals.10 These bee the reports of great and famous writers, to say nothing of the labours and works both of Hercules and Perses11 there: and to conclude, that the way unto it is exceeding great, and not certainely knowne. Bookes there were besides of Hanno, a great captaine and commander among the Carthaginians, who in the time of the most flourishing state of Carthage, had a charge and commission to discover and survey the whole compasse of Affricke. Him, most of the Greekes as well as our countreymen following, among some other fabulous stories, have written that he also built many citties there: but neither memoriall upon record, nor any token of them at all is left extant. Whiles Scipio Æmylianus warred in Affrick, Polybius the writer of the Annales, received of him a fleet: who having sailed about of purpose to search into that part of the world, hath put thus much downe in writing, That from the said mountaine West, toward the forrests full of wild beasts, which Affricke breedeth, unto the river Anatis, are 485 miles. And from thence to Lixus 205. Agrippa saith, That Lixus is distant from the streights of Gades 112 miles. Then, that there is an arme of the sea called Saguti. Also a towne upon the Promontorie, Murelacha. Rivers, Subur and Sala. Moreover, that the haven Rutubis is from Lixus 313 miles. And so forward to the Promontorie of the Sunne. The port or haven Risardir: the Gætulians, Autololes, the river Cosenus, the nation of the Scelatites and Massalians.a The rivers Masatal and Darat, wherin Crocodiles are engendred. Then forward, that there is a gulfe of 516 miles, enclosed within the promontorie or cape of the mountaine Barce, running along into the West, which is called Surrentium. After it, the river Palsus, beyond which are the Æthyopians Perorsi, and at their backe are the Pharusi. Upon whom joine the midlanders, to wit, the Gætuliandars.13 But upon the coast are the Æthyiopian Daratites, the river Bambotus, full of Crocodiles & Hippopotames [i. Water-horses.] From which, he saith, That there is nothing but mountains all the way as farre as to that, which we call Theon-Ochea [The gods chariot.]14 Then, in sailing nine daies and nights to the promontorie Hesperium, he hath placed the mountaine Atlas in the midway thereof, which by all other writers is set downe to bee in the utmost marches of Mauritania. The first time that the Romanes warred in Mauritania, was in the time of prince Claudius Emperour: at what time as Ædemon the freed servant of king Ptolomaus, by C. Cæsar slain, went about to revenge his death. For as the barbarous people retired and fled backe, certaine it is that the Romanes came as far as to the hill Atlas. And not onely such Generals as had been Consuls, and were of Senatours degree and calling, who at that time managed and conducted the warres, but knights also and gentlemen of Rome, who from that time had gouvernment and commaund there, took it for an honour and glorie, that they had pierced and entred into Atlas. [* Five Romane Colonies, as wee have said, be in that province] and by that common fame and report, there may seeme to lie a thorow-fare thither. But that is found for the most part by daily experience, most deceivable of all things else: because persons of high place and great worth, when they are loth to search out narrowly into the truth of matters, sticke not for shame of ignorance, to give out untruths: and never are men more credulous and apter to beleeve and be deceived, than when some grave personage fathereth a lie. And verily I lesse marvell, that they of gentlemens degree, yea, and those now of Senatours calling, have not come to the certaine knowledge of some things there: seeing they set their whole affection and mind upon nothing but excesse and roiot: which how powerfull it is and forcible, is seene by this most of all, when forrests are sought out far and neere for Ivorie and Citron trees: when all the rockes in Getulia are searched for Murices and Purpuræ, [shell-fishes that yeeld the purple crimsen colour.] Howbeit, the naturall inhabitants of that countrey doe write, That in the sea-coast 150 miles from Sala, there is the river Asana, that receiveth salt water into it, but hath in it a goodly faire haven: and not farre from it another fresh river, which they call Fut: from which to Dyris (for that is the name in their language of Atlas, by a generall consent) are 200 miles, with a river comming in betweene, named Vior. And there, the speech so goeth, are to be seene the certaine tokens of a ground sometimes inhabited, to wit, the reliques of vineyards and date tree groves. Suetonius Paulinus (a Consull in our time) who was the first Romane leader, that for certaine miles space went over Atlas, also hath reported verily as touching the heigth thereof, that with the rest: and moreoer, that the foot thereof toward the botome, stand thicke and full of tall woods, with trees therein of an unknowne kind, but the heigth of them is delectable to see to, smooth and even without knots, the leaves and braunches like Cypresse; and besides the strong smell they yeeld, are covered all over with a thin downe, of which (with some helpe of Art) fine cloth may be made, such as the silk-worme doth yeeld. That the top and crest thereof is covered with deep snow even in summer time. Moreover, that he reached up to the pitch of it at the tenth daies end, and went beyond it as farre as a river called Niger,15 through wildernesse ful of blacke dust, where other whiles there stood out certaine cliffes, and craggie rockes, as they were scortched and burnt: and that those places by reason of partching heat were not habitable, albeit a man made triall thereof in the winter season. Furthermore, that the paisants who dwelt in the next forrests, were pestred with Elephants, wild beasts, and serpents of all sorts; and those people were called Canarij: for that they and dogges feed togither with one another, and part among them the bowels of wild beasts.16 For certaine it is knowne, that a nation of the Æthiopians whom they call Peroesi,17 joyneth upon them. Iuba, the father of Ptolomaus, who before-time ruled over both Mauritanes, a man more memorable and renowmed for his studie and love of good letters, than for his kingdom and royall port, hath written the like concerning Atlas: and he saith moreover, that there is an herb growing there called Euphorbia, of his Phisitions name that first found it: the milkie juyce thereof he praiseth wondrous much, for to cleare the eyes, and to be a preservative against all serpents and poisons whatsoever: and thereof hath he written a treatise and made a book by it selfe. Thus much may suffice, if it be not too much, as touching Atlas.

Chap. II.

The province Tingitania.

The length of the province Tingitania,18 taketh 170 miles. The nations therein be these: The Mauri, which in times past was the principall, and of whome the province tooke name:19 and those most writers have called Marusij.20 Being by warre weakened and diminished, they came in the end to a few families only. Next to them were the Massæsuli , but in like manner were they consumed. Now is the province inhabited by the Getulians, Bannurri,21 and the Autololes, the most valiant and puissant of all the rest. A member of these were sometime the Vesuni:22 but being divided from them, they became a nation by themselves, and bounded upon the Æthiopians. The province naturally full of moutnaines Eastward, breedeth Elephants. In the hill also Abila, and in those which for their even and equall heigth they call, The seven brethren: and these butt upon Abila, which looketh over into the sea. From these beginneth the coast of the Inward sea.23 The river Tamuda navigable, and a towne sometime of that name. The river Laud, which also receiveth vessels. The towne Rusardie,24 and the haven. The river Malavana navigable. The towne Siga just against Malacha situate in Spaine:25 the royall seat of Syphax, and now the other Mauritania. For a long time they kept the names of KK. so as the utmost was called Bogadania: and likewise Bocchi, which now is Cæsariensis. Next to it is the haven for the largenesse thereof called Magnus, with a towne of Romane citizens. The river Muluca, which is the limit of Bocchi and the Massæsuli. Quiza Xenitana, a towne of Straungers: Arsennaria, a towne of Latines three miles from the sea: Carcenna,26 a Colonie of Augustus, erected for the second legion: Likewise another Colonie of his planted with the Pretorian band, Gunugi:27 and the promontorie of Apollo. And a most famous towne there Cæsarea, usually before-time called Iol, the royall seat of king Iuba: endowed by Claudius the Emperour of happie memorie, with the franchises and right of a Colonie, at whose appointment the old souldiers were there bestowed. A new towne, Tipasa, with the graunt of the liberties of Latium.28 Likewise Icosium,29 endowed by Vespasian the Emperour, with the same donations. The colonie of Augustus Rusconiæ; and Ruscurum, by Claudius honoured with the free burgeoisie of the citie. Rusoezus,30 a colonie of Augustus. Salde,31 a Colonie of the same man. Igelgili32 also, and Turca, a towne seated upon the sea and the river Ampsaga. Within the land, the Colonie Augusta, the same that Succubar; and likewise Tubrisuptus.33 Cities, Timici, Tigavæ. Rivers, Sardabala and Nabar.34 The people Macurebi: the river Usar, and the nation of the Nabades. The river Ampsaga is from Cæsarea 233 miles. The length of Mauritania both the one and the other togither, is 839 miles, the breadth 467.35

Chap. III.


Next to Ampasaga is Numidia, renowmed for the name of Masanissa: called of the Greeks, the land Metagonitis. The Numidian Nomades, so named of chaunging their pasture,36 who carrie their cottages or sheddes (and those are all their dwelling houses) about with them upon waines. Their townes be Cullu and Rusicade, from which 48 miles off within the midland parts, is the colonie Cirta, surnamed of Cirtanes:37 another also within and a free borough towne, named Bulla Regia. but in the utmost coast, Tacatua, Hippo Regius, and the river Armua. The towne Trabacha, of Romane Cittizens: the river Tusca, which boundeth Numidia: and besides the Numidian marble, and great breed of wild beasts, nothing is there els worth the noting.

Chap. IIII.


From Tusca forward, you have the region Zeugitana, and the coutnrey properly called Africa. Three promontories: first, the White;38 then anon that of Apollo over-against Sardinia: and a third of Mercurie opposite to Sicilie; which running into the sea, make two creekes: the one Hipponensis, next to the towne which they call Hippo rased;39 the Greeks name it Diarrhyton, for the little brookes and rilles that water the grounds: upon this, there bordereth Theudalis, an exempt towne from tribute, but somewhat farther from the sea side; then the promontorie of Apollo. And in the other creeke, Utica, a towne of Romane citizens, ennobled for the death of Cato:40 and the river Bagrada. A place called Castra Cornelia: and the colonie Carthago, among the reliques and ruines of great Carthage: and the colonie Maxulla. Townes, Carpi, Misua,41 and the free borough Clupea upon the promontorie of Mercurie. Item, free townes, Curubis and Neapolis. Soone after yee shall meet with another distinction of Affricke indeed. Libyphœnices are they called, who inhabite Byzacium; for so is that region named: containing in circuit 250 myles, exceeding fertile and plenteous, where the ground sowne yeeldeth againe to the husband-man 100 fold encrease. In it are free townes, Leptis, Adrumetum, Ruspina, Thapsus: then, Thenæ, Macomades, Tacape, Sabrata, reaching to the lesse Syrtis: unto which, the length of Numidia and Africa from Amphaga, is 580 miles: the bredth, of so much thereof as is knowne, 200. Now this part which wee have called Africke, is divided into provinces twaine, the old and the new; separated one from the other by a fosse or ditch brought as farre as to Thenæ, within the Africane gulfe, which towne is 217 myles from Carthage: and that trench Scipio Africanus the second, caused to be made, and bare halfe the charges together with the KK.42 The third gulfe is parted into twaine, cursed and horrible places both, for the ebbing and flowing of the sea, and the shelves betweene the two Syrtes. From Carthage to the nearer of them, which is the lesse, is 300 miles by the account of Polybius; who saith also, that the said Syrte is for 100 miles forward daungerous, and 300 about. By land also thither, the way is passeable by observation of the Starres, at one time of the yeere onely, and that lyeth through desert sands and places full of serpents.43 And then you meet with forrests replenished with numbers of wild beasts: and within-forth, wildernesses of Elephants: and soon after, waste deserts even beyond the Garamantes, who from the Augilæ are distant twelve daies journey. Above them was the nation of the Psylli:44 and above them the Lake of Diomedes45 environned with desarts. Those Augylæ themselves are seated well neere in the middle way from Æthyopia, which bendeth Westward, and the countrey lying betweene the two Syrtes, with equall distance betweene of both sides: but the shorte betweene the two Syrtes of 250 miles. There standeth the citie Ocensus,46 the river Cinyps and the countrey.47 Townes, Neapolis, Taphra, Abrotonum, the other Leptis, called also the great.48 Then the greater Syrtis, in compasse 625 miles, and in direct passage 313.49 Next to it, there inhabite the people Cisipades. In the inmost gulfe was the coast of the Lotophagi, whom some have called Alachroas,50 as farre as to the altars of Philæna, and of sand are they.51 Next to them, not farre from the Continent, the vast and wide Meere admitteth into it the river Triton, and taketh the name of him: but Callimachus calleth it Pallantias, and saith it is on this side the lesser Syrtes, but many place it betweene both Syrtes.52 The promontorie that encloseth the bigger, is named Borion. Beyond it is the province Cyrenaica. From the river Ampsaga to this bound, Affricke containeth 26 States,53 who are subject to the Romane Empire: among which are sixe Colonies besides the abovenamed, Uthina and Tuburbis.54 Townes endowed with franchises of Romane cittizens 15. Of which those in the midland parts, worthie to bee named, are Azuritanum, Abutucense, Aboriense, Canopicum, Chilmanense,55 Simittuense, Thunusidense, Tuburnicense, Tynidrumense, Tibgense,56 Ucitana twaine, the greater and the lesse, and Vagense.57 One towne enjoying the liberties of Latium, Usalitanum.58 One tributarie or pensionarie towne neere Castra Cornelia, paieth custome and duties to Rome. Free townes 30, of which there are to bee named within-forth, Arolitanum,59 Acharitanum, Avinense,60 Abziritanum, Canopitanum, Melzitanum, Madaurense,61 Salaphitanum, Tusdritanum, Tiricense Tiphicense,62 Tunicense, Theudense, Tagestense, Tigense, Ulusibritanum, another Vagense, Vigense and Zamense. The rest may well be called not onely citties, but also for the most part, nations, namely, the Natatondes,63 Capisitani, Misulani,64 Sabarbares, Massili, Misives,65 Vamacures, Ethini,66 Massini,67 Marchubij: and Gætulia all and whole, even to the river Nigris, which parteth Affrike and Æthyopia.

Chap. V.


The region Cyrenaica, called also Pentapolitana, is famous and renowned for the Oracle of Hammon,68 which is from Cyrenæ 400 miles, for the fountaine of the Sunne,69 and principally for five citties, Berenice, Arsinoe, Ptolemais, Apollonia, and Cyrene it selfe. Berenice standeth upon the utmost winding and nouke of Syrtis, called sometime the cittie of the abovenamed Hesperides, according to the wandering tales of Greece.70 And before the towne, not far off, is the river Lethon, the sacred grove where the hort-yards of these Hesperides are reported to be. From Leptis it is 385 miles.71 From it standeth Arsinoe, usually named Teuchira 43 miles: and from thence 22 miles, Ptoelmais, called in old time Barce.72 And then 250 miles73 off the Promontorie Phycus runneth out along the Creticke sea, distant from Tænarus a cape of Laconia, 350 miles: but from Creet it selfe 125 miles. And after it Cyrene, 11 miles from the sea. From Phycus to Apollonia is 24 miles: to Cherrhonesus 88: and so forth to Catabathnus 216 miles. The inhabitants there bordering, bee the Marmaridæ, stretching out in length almost from Parætonium to the greater Syrtis. After them the Ararauceles:74 and so in the very coast and side of Syrtis, the Nasamones, whome beforetimes the Greekes called Mesammones by reason of the place, for that they were seated in the middest betweene the two quicke sands.75 The Cyrenaicke countrey, for the space of 15 miles from the sea side, is fruitfull for trees: and for the same compasse within th eland, but for corne onely: but then for 30 miles in breadth, and 250 in length, for the gum Laser and nothing else.76 After the Nasamones,77 the Hasbitæ and Masæ doe live.78 Beyond them the Hammanientes, eleven daies journey from the Greater Syrtes to the West, and even they also every way are compassed about with sands: howbeit they find without much ado pits79 almost in cubites deepe, for that the waters there of Mauritania doe overflow. Houses they make themselves of salt, hewed out of their owne hils in manner of stone. From these to the Troglodites, in the Southwest coast is foure daies journey, with whom they chaffer and trafficke onely for a certaine precious stone or gem, which wee call a Carbuncle, brought out of Æthyopia. There commeth betweene, the countrey Phazania, lying toward the wildernesse abovesaid of Affricke, above the lese Syrtis: where we subdued the nation of the Phazanij, together with the cities Alele and Cillaba. In like manner Dydamum80 overagainst Sabrata. Next to whom there is a mountaine, reaching a great way from the East into the West, called by our men Ater, naturally as it were burnt, and like as if it were scorched and set on fire with the reflection of the Sunne. Beyond that mountaine are the deserts: also Matelgæ a towne of the Garamants, and likewise Debris, which castesth forth a spring of waters seething up from noone to midnight exceeing hot: and for as many houres againe into midday most chilling cold: also the most goodly towne Garama, the cheefe head of the Garamantes. All which places the Romanes have conquered by force of armes, and over them Cornelius Balbus triumphed, the onely man of forrainers that was honoured with the triumphant chariot, and endowed besides with the freedome of Romane citizens.81 For why, being borne at Gades, he and his uncle both, Balbus the elder, were made free denizens of Rome. And this is marvell that our writers have recorded, that besides the townes abovenamed by him conquered, himselfe in his triumph carried the titles and pourtraicts not of Cydamus and Garama onely, but also of all other nations and cities, which were raunged in a Roll, and went in this order. The towne Tabidium, the nation Niteris, the towne Negligemela, the nation Bubeium, the towne Vel,82 the nation Enipi, the towne Thuben, the hill named Niger. The townes Nitibrum and Rapsa, the nation Discera,83 the towne Debris, the river Nathabus, and towne Tapsagum, the nation Nannagi, the towne Boin, the towne Pege, the river Dasibari. And againe forward, these towns lying one to another together,84 Baracu, Buluba, Alasi, Bala, Galla, Maxala, and Zizama. The hill Gyri, wherein Titus hath reported that precious stones were engendred.85 Hitherto the way to the Garamants, was intricate and unpassable, by reason of the robbers and theeves of that countrey, who used to dig certaine pits in the way (which to them that know the quarters of the countrey is no hard matter to doe) and then cover them lightly over with sand. But in the last war which the Romanes maintained against the Oenses, under the conduct and fortunate auspices of Vespasian the Emperour, there was found a short and neere way of four daies journey: and this way is called Præter caput Saxi [besides the rockes head.] The frontier towne of Cyrenaica is called Catabathmos, which is a towne and a vale all on a suddain falling with a steepe descent. To this bound, from the lesse Syrtis, Cyrenaica Affrica lieth in length 1060 miles, and in breadth, for so much as it knowne, 800.

Chap. VI.

Libya Maræotis.

The countrey following is named Mareotis Libya, and boundeth upon Ægypt, inhabited by the Marmaridæ, Adyrmachidæ, and so forward with the Mareotæ. The measure of it from Catabathmost to Paretonium, is 86 miles. In that tract there lieth in the way between the village Apis, a place renowned for the religious rites of Ægypt.86 From it to Parætonium are 12 miles.87 From thence to Alexandria 200 miles: the breadth thereof is 169 miles. Eratosthenes hath delivered in writing, That from Cyrenæ to Alexandria by land is 525 miles. Agrippa saith, that the length of all Affricke from the Atlanticke sea, together with the inferiour part of Ægypt containeth 3040 miles. Polybius and Eratosthenes reputed to have been most exact and curious in this kind, set downe, from the Ocean to great Carthage 1600 miles. From thence to Canopicum the neerest mouth of Nilus, they make 1630 miles.88 Isidorus reckoneth from Tingi to Canopus 3599 miles. And Artemidorus fortie lesse then Isiodorus.

Chap. VII.

Islands about Affricke, and overagainst Affricke.

These seas have not very many Islands within them. The fairest of them all is Meninx, 35 miles long, and 25 broad,89 called by Eratosthenes Lotophagitis. Two townes it hath, Meninx on Affricke side, and Thoar on the other:90 it selfe is situate from the right hand promontorie of the lesse Syrtis ** 200 paces. A hundred miles from it against the left hand is Cercina, with a free towne of the same name, in length it is 25 miles, and halfe as much in breadth where it is most: but toward the end not above five miles over. To it there lieth a prettie little one toward Carthage, called Cercinitis, & joineth by a bridge unto it. From these almost 50 miles, lieth Lopadusa sixe miles long. Then, Gaulos and Galata: the earth whereof killeth the Scorpion, a fell creature, and noisome to Affricke. Men say also that they will die in Clupea, overagainst which lieth Corsyra, with a towne. But against the gulfe of Carthage be the two Ægineti,91 rockes more like than Islands, lying most betweene Sicilie and Sardinia. There bee that write how these sometime were inhabited, but afterwards sunke downe and were covered.

Chap. VIII.

The Æthyopians.

But within the inner compasse and hollow of Affricke toward the South, and above the Gætulians, where the desarts come betweene, the first people that inhabite those parts, bee the Libij Ægyptij, and then the Leucæthiopes.92 Above them are the Æthyopian nations, to wit the Nigritæ, of whom the river tooke name: The Gymnetes,93 Pharusi, and those which now reach to the Ocean, whome wee spake of in the marches of Mauritania, namely, the Perorsi. From all these, it is nothing but a wildernesse Eastward, till you come to the Garamantes, Augylæ, and Troglodites, according to the most true opinion of them, who place two Æthyiopiaes above the deserts of Affricke: and especially of Homer, who saith, that the Æthyopians are divided two waies, namely, East and West.94 The river Nyger is of the same nature that Nilus. It bringeth forth Reed and Papyr, breedeeth the same living creatures, and riseth or swelleth at the same season. It springeth betweene the Tareleia Æthyopians and the Oecalicæ. The towne Mavin95 belonging to this people, some have set upon the wildernesse: as also, neere unto them, the Atlantes, the Ægipanes, halfe wild beasts, the Blemmyi, the Gamphasants, Satyres, & Himantapodes. Those Atlantes, if we will beleeve it, degenerate from the rites and manners of all other men: for neither call they one another by any name: and they looke wistly upon the sunne, rising and setting, with most dreadfull curses, as being pernicious to them and their fields: neither dreame they in their sleepe, as other men. The Troglodites dig hollow caves, and these serve them for dwelling houses: they feed upon the flesh of serpents. They make a gnashing noise,96 rather than utter any voice, so little use have they of speech one to another. The Garamants live out of wedlocke, and converse with their women in common. The Augylæ do no worship but to the devils beneath.97 The Gamphasantes be all naked, and know no warres, and sort themselves with no forrainer. The Blemmyi, by report, have no heads, but mouth and eies both in their breast. The Satyres besides their shape onely, have no properties nor fashions of men. The Ægipanes are shaped, as you see them commonly painted.98 The Himantopodes bee some of them limberlegged and tender, who naturally goe creeping by the ground.99 The Pharusi, sometime Persæ, are said to have been the companions of Hercules, as he went to the Hesperides. More of Affricke the noting, I have not to say.

Chap. IX.

Of Asia.

Unto it joineth Asia, which from the mouth of Canopus unto the mouth of Pontus, after Timosthenes 2639 miles. From the coast ofPontus to that of Mæotis, Eratosthenes saith, is 1545 miles. The whole, together with Ægypt unto Tanais, by Artemidorus and isidorus, taketh 8800 miles.100 Many seas there bee in it, taking their names of the borderers: and therefore they shall be declared together with them. The nether part of the river Nilus, divided on the right hand and the left, by his clasping doth bound and limit, with the mouth of Canopus from Affricke, with the Pelusiake from Asia, and carrieth a space betweene of 170 miles. Whereupon, considering that Nilus doth so part it selfe, some have reckoned Ægypt among the Islands, so as it maketh a triangle figure of the land. And here it is that many have called Ægypt by the name of the Greek letter Dela, Δ. The measure of it from the channell where it is but one, and from whence it beginneth first to part into skirts and sides, unto the mouth of Canopus, is 146 miles: and to the Pelusiake 256.101 The upmost part thereof bounding upon Æthyopia, is called Thebais. Divided it is into towneships with severall jurisdictions, which they cal Nomos, to wit, Ombites, Phatuites, Apollopolites, Hermonthites, Thinites, Phanturites, Capitites, Tentyrites, Diospalites, Antæopolites, Aphroditopolites, and Lycopolites. The countrey about Pelusium, these towneships with their severall jurisdictions, Pharbœtites, Bubastites, Sethroites, and Tanites. The rest have these following, the Arabicke, the Hammoniacke which extendeth to the Oracle of Iupiter Hammon, Oxyrinchites, Leontopolites, Atarrhabites, Cynopolites, Hermopolites, Xoites, mendesins, Sebennites, Capastites, Latopolites, Helicopolites, Prosopites, Panopolites, Busirites, Onuphites, Sorites, Ptenethu, Pthemphu, Naucratites, Nitrites,102 Gynæcopolites, Menelaites, in the country of Alexandria. In like manner of Libya Mareotis. Heracleopolites is in the Island of Nilus, fiftie miles long, wherein also is that which they call Hercules his towne. Two Arsinoites there bee, they and Memphites reach as farre as to the head of Delta. Upon it there doe bound out of Affrica the two Oasitæ.103 There be that change some names of these, and set downe form them other jurisdictions, to wit, Heroopolites, and Crocodilopolites. Betweene Arsinoites and Memphites there was a lake 250 miles about, or as Mutianus saith, 450, fiftie paces deepe, [i. 150 foot,], & the same made by mans hand, called the Lake Mæridis, of a king who made it. 72 miles from thence is Memphis, the castle in old time of the Ægyptian kings. From which to the Oracle of Hammon is twelve daies journey, and so to the devision of Nilus, which is called Delta, fifteene miles. The river Nilus arising from unknowne springs, passeth through desarts and hote burning countries: and going thus a mightie way in length, is knowne by fame onely, without armes, without warres which have discovered and found out all other lands. It hath his beginning, so farre forth as Iuba was able to search and find out, in a hill of the lower Mauritania, not far from the Ocean, where a lake presently is seene to stand with water, which they call Nilides. In it are found these fishes, called Alabetæ, Coracini, Siluri, and the Crocodile. Upon this argument and presumption Nilus is thought to spring from hence, for that the pourtraict of this source is consecrated by the said prince at Cæsarea, in Iseum, and is there at this day seene.104 Moreover, observed it is, that as the snow or raine doe satisfie the countrey in Mauritania, so Nilus doth encrease. When it is run out of this lake, it scornth to run through the sandie and overgrown places, and hideth himselfe for certaine daies journey. And then soone after out of a greater lake, it breaketh forth in the countrey of the Massæsyli, with Mauritania Cæsariensis,105 and looketh about viewing mens companie, carrying the same argument still of living creatures bred within it. Then, once againe being received within the sands, it is hidden a second time for twentie daies journey, in the desarts as farre as to the next Æthyopes: and so soone as hee hath once againe espied a man, forth hee starteth (as it should seeme) out of that Spring, which they called Nigris. And then deviding Affricke from Æthyopia, being acquainted, if not presently with people, yet with the frequent companie of wild and savage beasts, and making shade of woods as he goeth, he cutteth through the middest of the Æthyopians: there surnamed Astapus, which in thelanguage of those nations signifieth a water flowing out of darknesse. Thus dasheth hee upon such an infinite number of Islands, and some ofthem so mightie great, that albeit he beareth a swift streame, yet is he not able to passe beyond them in lesse space than five daies. About the goodliest and fairest of them all Meroe, the channell going on the left hand is call Astabores, that is to say, the branch of a water comming forth of darkenesse: but that on the right hand Astusapes, which is as much as, Lying hid, to the former signification. And never taketh the name of Nilus, before his waters meet againe and accord all whole together. And even so was he aforetime named Siris,106 for many miles space: and of Homer altogether Ægyptis;107 and of others, Triton:108 here and there, and ever and anon hitting upon Islands, and stirred as it were with so many provocations: and at the last enclosed and shut within mountaines, and in no place carrieth he a rougher and swifter streame, whiles the water that he beareth, hasteneth to a place of the Æthyopians called Catadupi, where in the last fall amongst the rockes that stand in his way, hee is supposed not to runne, but to rush downe with a mightie noise. But afterwards he becommeth more mild and gentle, as the course of his streame is broken, and his violence tamed and abated, yea, and partly wearied with his long way: and so through many moths of his, he dischargeth himselfe into the Ægyptian sea. Howbeit, at certaine set daies he swelleth to a great heigth: and when he hath travailed all over Ægypt, hee overfloweth the land, to the great fertilitie and plentie thereof. Many and divers causes of this rising and increase of his, men have given: but those which carrie the most probabilitie, are either the rebouding of the water, driven backe by the winds of Etesiæ, at that time blowing against it, and driving the sea withall upon the mouths of Nilus: or else the Summer raine in Æthyopia, by reason that the same Etesiæ bring clodus thither from other parts of the world. Timæus the Mathematician, alledged an hidden reason thereof, to wit, that the head and source of Nilus is named Phiala, and the river it selfe is hidden, as it were drowned within certaine secret trenches within the ground, breathing forth vapours out of reeking rockes, where it thus lieth in secret. But so soone as the Sunne during those daies, commeth neere, drawne up it is by force of heat, and so all the while he hangeth aloft, overfloweth: and then againe for feare he should bee wholly devoured and consumed, putteth in his head againe, and lieth hid. And this happeneth from the rising of the Dog starre Sicinus,109 in the sunnes entrance into Leo, while the Planet standeth plumbe over the fountaine aforesaid: for as much as in that climate there are no shadowes to be seene. Many againe were of a different opinion, that a river floweth more abundantly, when the Sunne is departed toward the North pole, which happeneth in Cancer and Leo: and therefore at that time is not so easily dried: but when he is returend once againe backe toward Capricorn and the South pole, it is drunke up, and therefore floweth more sparily. But if according to Timæus a man would thinke it possible that the water should be drawne up, the want of shaddowes during those daies, and in those quarters, continueth still without end. For the river beginneth to rise and swell at the next change of the Moone after the Sunnesteed, by little and little gently, so long as he passeth through the signe Cancer, but most abundantly when he is in Leo. And when he is in Virgo, he falleth and settleth low againe, in the same measure as he rose before. And is cleane brought within his bankes in Libra,110 which is, as Herodotus thinketh, by the hundreth day. All the whiles it riseth, it hath beene thought unlawfull for kings or governours to saile or passe in any vessell upon it, and they make conscience to do so. How high it riseth, is knowne by markes and measures taken of certaine pits. The ordinarie heigth of it is sixteene cubites. Under that gage the waters overflow not all. Above that stint, there are a let and hinderance, by reason that the later it is ere they bee fallen, and downe againe. By these, the seed time is much of it spent, for that the earth is too wet. By the other there is none at all, by reason that the ground is drie and thirstie. The province taketh good keepe and reckoning of both, the one as well as the other. For when it is no higher than 12 cubites, it findeth extreame famine: yea, and at 13 it feeleth hunger still, 14 cubites comforts their hearts, 15 bids them take no care, but 16 affoordeth them plentie and delicious dainties. The greatest floud that ever was knowne untill these daies, was 18 cubites, in the time of prince Claudius Emperor: and the least, in the Pharsalian warre against the death of Pompey:111 as if the very river by that prodigious token abhorred to see the same. When at any time the waters seeme to stand and cover the ground still, they are let out at certaine sluces or floud-gates drawne up and set open. And so soone as any part of the land is freed from the water, streight waies it is sowed. This is the onely river of all others that breatheth out no wind from it. The Seignorie and dominion of Ægypt beginneth at Syene, the frontier town of Æthyopia. For that is the name of a demie Island a hundred miles in compasse, wherin are the Cerastæ upon the side of Arabia: and overagainst it the foure Islands Philæ,112 600 miles from the partition of Nilus, where it began to be called Delta, as we have said. This space of ground hath Artemidorus delivered, and withall, that within it were 250 townes. Iuba setteth down 400 miles. Aristocreon saith, That from Elephantis to the sea is 750 miles. This Elephantis being an Island, is inhabited beneath the lowest cataract or fall of water three miles, and above Syene 16:113 and it is the utmost point that the Ægyptians saile unto and is from Alexandria 586 miles. See how farre the authors above written, have erred and gone out of the way: there meet the Æthyopian ships, for they are made to fold up together, and carrie them upon their shoulders, so often as they come to those cataracts or downefals aforesaid. Ægypt, over and above all other their boast and glorie of antiquitie, brags that in the reigne of king Amasis, there were inhabited in it and peopled twentie thousand cities. And even at this day full it is of them, such as they be, and of base account. Howbeit, that of Apollo is much renowned, as also neere unto it another of Leucathea, and *** Diospolis the great, the very same that Thebes, famous for the hundred gates in it. Also, Captos,114 a great mart towne next to Nilus, much frequented for merchandise & commodities out of India & Arabia. Moreover, the towne of Venus, and another of Iupiter,115 and Tentyris, beneath which standeth Abydus, the roiall seat of Memnon, and Osiris renowmed for the temple there, seven miles and an halfe distant from the river, toward Lybia. Then Ptoelmais, Panopolis, and another yet of Venus. Also in the Lybian coast, Lycon, where the hill[s] doe bound Thebais. Soone after, these townes of Mercurie, Alabastron, Canum, and that of Hercules spoken of before.116 After these, Arsinoe, and the abovesaid Memphis, betweene which and the diocese Arsinoetis, in the Lybian coast,117 the towres called Pyramides, the Labyrinth built up in the lake of Mœris without any jote of timber to it,118 and the towne Crialon.119 One more besides, standing within-forth and bounding upon Arabia, called The towne of the Sunne, of great account and importance.120

Chap. X.


But right worthy of praise is Alexandria, standing upon the coast of the Ægyptian sea, built by Alexander the Great on Africke side, 12 myles from the mouth of Canopus, neare to the lake Mareotis: which was before-time called  Arapotes. Dinochares the Architect, (a man renowmed for his singular wit many waies) laid the modell and platforme thereof by a subtill and wittie devise: for having taken up a circuit of 15 miles for the cittie, hee made it round like to a Macedonian cloke, full in the skirts, bearing out into angles and corners, as well on the left hand as the right, so as it seemed to lye in folds and plaits; and yet even then he set out one fift part of all this plot for the kings pallace. The lake Mareotis from the South side, meeteth with an arme of the river Nilus, brought from out of the mouth of the said river called Canopicus: for the more commodious trafficke and commerce out of the firme ground and inland Continent. This lake containeth within it sundry Ilands,121 and (according to Claudius Cæsar) it is thirtie miles over.122 Others say, that it lyeth in length fortie Schœni, and so, wheras every Schœne is 30 stadia, it commeth by that account to be 150 myles long, and as many broad. Over and besides, there be many goodly faire townes of great importance, standing upon the river Nilus where he runneth, and those especially which have given name to the mouthes of the river, and yet not to all those neither (for there be 11123 of them in all, over and besides foure more, which they themselves call bastard mouthes124) but to 7 of the principall: to wit, upon that of Canopus, next to Alexandria, then Bolbitinum, and so forth to Sebenniticum, Phatuiticum,125 Mendesium, Taniticum, and last of all Pelusiacum. Other cities there be besides, to wit, Buros,126 Pharboœtus, Leontopolis, Achribis,127 Isis towne, Busiris, Cynophis, Aphrodites, Saïs, Naucratis, of which some thinke the mouth Naucraticum tooke the name, which they be that call Heracleoticum, preferring it before Canopicum, next unto which it standeth.

Chap. XI.

Arabia [the Desert or Petræa.]

Being once past that arme of the river Nilus, which entreth into the sea at Pelusium, you come into Arabia, confining upon the red Sea: and that other Arabia, so rich and odoriferous, and therefore renowmed with the surname of Happie. As for this Desert Arabia, possessed it is by the Catabanes, Esbonites, and Scenite128 Arabians: all barren and fruitlesse, save whereas it meeteth with the confines of Syria, and setting aside the mountaine Casius, nothing memorable. This region confronteth the Arabians Canchlei on the East side, and the Cedræi Southward, and they both confine together afterwards upon the Nabathæes. Moreover, two Baies there be, the one called, The gulfe of Heroopolis,129 and the other of Elani:130 both in the red sea on the coast of Ægypt, 150 miles distant, betweene two townes, Elana131 and Gaza, which is in our [Mediterranean] sea. Agrippa counteth from Pelusium to Arsinoe, a towne situate upon the red sea, an hundred and twentie miles.132 See how small a way lyeth between two Climates so different in nature.

Chap. XII.

Syria, Palestine, Phœnice.

Upon the coast of the said Arabia, confineth Syria; a Region in times past, the chiefe and most renowmed upon earth: and the same distinguished by sundrie names. For where it confineth upon the Arabians, called it was Palæstina, Iurie, Cœle Syria, 133 and afterward, Phœnice: But goe farther within the firme land, Damascene. Turne more still Southwards, it is named Babylonia. And the same betweene the rivers Euphrates and Tygris, carrieth the name of Mesopotamia. Beyong the mountaine Taurus, it is Sophene: but on this side the hill, they call Comagene. The countrey beyond Armenia, is Adiabenæ, named before time Assyria:134 but the marches of Syria which confront Ciclicia, is knowne by the name of Antiochia. The whole length of Syria, from the frontiers of Cilicia to Arabia, containeth 470 miles: the bredth betweene Seleucia Pieria, to Zeugma135 a towne seated upon Euphrates, taketh 175 miles. They that make a more subtill and particular division, would have Phœnice to be environed with Syria. And first, as you come from Arabia, is the sea-coast of Syria, which compriseth in it Idumæa and Iudæa: then, you enter into Phœnicia, and so into Syria again, when you are past Phœnicia. And within-forth farther into the countrey, Phœnice is enclosed with Syria Damascena. All that sea yet, which beateth upon that coast, beareth the name of the Phœnician sea. As for that nation it selfe of the Phœnicians, have been highly reputed for their Science and learning, and namely, for the first invention of letters,136 for their knowledge in Astrologie,137 navigation, and martiall skill. Being past Pelusium, you come to a citie called Chabriæ Castra, to the mountain Casius, and the temple of Iupiter Casius: also the tombe of Pompeius Magnus; and last of all to the citie Ostracium. To conclude, from Pelusium to the frontiers of Arabia the Desert [along the coast of Syria] are 65 miles.

Chap. XIII.

Idumæa, Syria, Palestina, Samaria.

Soon after, beginneth Idumæa & Palestina, even from the rising up of the lake Sirbon, which some have repored to carie a circuit of 150 miles. Herodotus saith, it is hard under the foot of the hill Casius: but at this day it is but a small lake. As for the townes there, they be Rhinocolura,138 and more within the land, Rhaphæa: also Gaza a port towne, and farther within, Anthedon, and the mountain Angoris.139 From thence you discend to the coasts of Samaria, the free citie Ascalon, and Azotus: the two Iamnes, whereof the one is well within land; and so forward to Ioppe, a towne in Phœnicia, which by report, is more auncient than the deluge.140 Situate it is upon an hill, with a rocke before it, wherein are to be seene the tokens and reliques of ladie Andromedaes prison where she was bound.141 Within a chappell there, the Siren Decreto,142 whereof the Poets tell such tales, is worshipped. Being past Ioppe, you meet with Apollonia: the towne of Strato, called also Cæsarea, founded by king Herode: it beareth now the name of Prima Flavia, a colonie there planted and endowed with priviledges by Vespasian the Emperor. The bounds of Palæstina be 180143 miles from the confines of Arabia: and there entreth Phœnice. Withinforth in the countrey, are the townes of Samaria, and Neapolis, which beforetime was named Mamortha [or Maxbora].144 Also Sebaste upon the mountaine, and Gamala, which yet standeth higher than it.

Chap. XIIII.

Iurie and Galilæa.

Above Idumæa and Samaria, Iudæa spreadeth out farre in length and breadth. That part of it which joyneth to Syria, is called Galilæ: but that which is next to Syria and Ægypt, is named Peræa, [i. beyond Iorden:145] full of rough mountains dispersed here and there: and severed it is from other parts of Iurie, by the river Iordan. As for the rest of Iudæa, it is divded into ten governments or territories, called Toparchies, in this order following: to wit, that of Hiericho, a vale richly planted with date trees: Emmaus, well watered with fountaines: Lydda, Ioppica, Accrabatena, Gophnitica, Thamnitica, Betholene, Tephenæ,146 and Orine, wherein stood Hierusalem, the goodliest citie of all the Eastern parts, and not of Iurie onely. In it also is the principalitie Herodium, with a famous towne of that name.

Chap. XV.

Iordane the river.

The river Iordan springeth from the fountaine Paneades, which gave the surname to the citie Cæsarea, whereof wee will speake more.147 A pleasant river it is, and as the site of the countrey will permit and give leave, winding and turning in and out, seeking as it were for love and favour, and applying it selfe to please the neighbour inhabitants. Full against his will, as it were, he passeth to the lake of Sodome, Asphaltites, that ill-favoured and cursed lake: and in the end falleth into it, and is swallowed up of it, where amongst those pestilent and deadly waters, he looseth his owne that are so good and wholesome. And therefore to keep himselfe out of it as long as hee possibly could, upon the first opportunitie of any valleys, hee maketh a lake, which many call Genesara, which is 16 miles long and sixe broad. The same lake is environed with divers faire and beautiful townes, to wit, on the East side, with Iulias and Hippo; on the South, with Tarichea, of which name, the lake by some is called Tarichian: and on the West, with Tiberias, an healthfull place for the baines there of hote waters.148

Chap. XVI.


Asphaltites, or the lake of Sodome, breedeth and bringeth forth nothing but Bitumen and thereupon it took the name.149 No living bodie150 of any creature doth it receive into it: bulls and camels swim and flote aloft upon it. And heruepon ariseth that opinion which goeth of it, That nothing there will goe downe and sinke to the bottome. This lake in length exceedeth 100 miles, 25 miles over it is at the broadest place, and sixe at the narrowest. On the East, the Arabian Nomades confront it; and on the South side, Machærus regardeth it: in time past, the second fortresse of Iudæa, and principall next to Ierusalem. On the same coast, there is a fountaine of hote waters, holsome and medicinable, named Callirhoe, and good against many diseases. The very name that it carrieth, importeth no lesse praise and commendation.151

Pliny Adobe 81 middle right French (5-6), 89 Mayhoff 382 Frog 287 next erratum page 115



Book III
Pliny in Latin


The running title is "The fifth Booke of // Plinies Naturall Historie. " This page uses the font SPIonic for Greek.

1. "Castles and forts": rendering castella: that is, they do not live in walled cities.

2. Two provinces: Dio says that Claudius divided Mauritania into two provinces; Hardouin suggests that Caius contemplated the move and that it was completed by Claudius. Ptolemy says that Caius slaughtered Ptolemy the son of Juba: hence, probably, the "cruelty" (saevitia); see Sect. 11.

3. Cotes: thus Hermolaus out of Strabo, for Cotta or Cottae.

4. Tangier built by Antaus: or, says Plutarch, by his son, although Antaus is buried there: Sertorius, Chap. 9.

5. Traducta Julia: some suppose Pliny to be in error here. Hardouin has a long note on the problem(s) and solution.

6. Kings of Zilis: the editions of Holland's day read (something like) colonia Augusti Iulia Constantia, Zilis, regum dicioni exempta. Most people took this to mean two colonies, Iulia Constantia and Zilis; Holland puts Zilis with regum. In any case, there was one colony, Iulia Constantia Zulil -- now Arzilla (as in "Al Zulil"); the kings those of Mauritania.

7. 32 miles: here follows the customary warnings on numbers in Pliny. Consult a good critical edition if they're important to you, because they vary from reading to reading of the text. I annotate the variant readings only when they interest me for some reason. This one should probably be 35, but the editions of Holland's day say 32. (II and V are easily confused in manuscript.)

8. Altar of Hercules: (and on the "lies of the Greekes" that follows), see Strabo, 17.3.3

9. The addition Valentia: i.e, the cognomen Valentia.

10. Flashes of fires...revels of satyrs: Brotier's 1779 edition cites here the Travels in Barbary and the Levant of Thomas Shaw (1738) (he cites the French translation), p. 7: "If we conceive a number of Hills, usually of the perpendicular Height of four, five, or six Hundred Yards, with an easy Ascent, and several Groves of Fruit and Forrest-Trees, rising up in a Succession of Ranges one behind another; and if to this Prospect, we here and there add a rocky Precipice of a superiour Eminence and difficult Access, and place upon the Side, or Summit of it, a mud-walled Dashkrah or Village of the Kabyles; we shall then have a just and lively Idea of these Mountains, without giving Heed to the nocturnal Flames, melodious Sounds, or the lascivious Revels of such imaginary Beings, as the Antients have in a peculiar Manner attributed to this Place."

11. Perses: not Perses, but Perseus.

12. Massalians: ? Sc. Masati, or Masatians. Not sure where Holland got this one.

13. Gaetuliandars: that is, the Gaetulian Daras, or perhaps the Gaetulians who are Daras (as opposed to other sorts of Gaetulians).

14. Theon-Ochema: see also Book VI.

* [It seemeth that this clause is to be set in the beginning of the next chapter.] [Thus Holland, without explanation. It seems perfectly reasonable to put it here. Cf. sect. 2 and sect. 5.

15. Ger: thus the editions of Holland's day, until Hardouin restored Ger out of the manuscripts and Ptolemy.

16. Canarii because they feed with dogs: "Nempe," inquit Harduinus, "caninæ carnis, unde Canarii, sive Kunofa/goi appellati sunt", which puts in rather a different light.

17. Peroesi: sc. Perorsi.

18. Tingitaniae: thus the old editions of Pliny, which here read Tingitaniae.

19. Province: that is, Mauretania (not Tingitana, but both Tingitana and Caesariensus). "Province" is a gloss on the text, provided by the Latin editions of Holland's day; Pliny says "the Moors, whence the name, ...".

20. Marusii: cf. Strabo, 17.3.2, and read "Maurusij".

21. Banurri: thus Hermolaus and editions that follow him; Hardouin out of the manuscripts, Baniuræ.

22. Vesuni: or Nesuni, or Nesimi.

23. Inward sea: that is, the Mediterranean.

24. Rusardie: thus the editions of Pliny's day. Hardouin corrects to Rusadir. Cf. sect. 9, where the town is called Risadir in Holland's translation.

25. Siga: There are some arguments over exactly where Siga was. One thing is clear, however: if we are moving eastward, as in general we are, then Siga must be east of the "Malvana". The implication of "over against Malaga" (ex adverso Malacae in Hispania) is that Malaga is the closest point of Spain, or at least a close point in Spain, or possibly that it lies in some direct geographical line. None of these is true. Siga would seem to lie "over against" the Charidemus promontory, by modern ways of thinking, and is considerably east-southeast of Malaga.

26. Carcenna: thus the editions of Pliny's day, for Cartenna.

27. Gunugi: Thus Gelenius; most editions of Holland's day, Gunugii; sc. Gunugu.

28. Cæsarea...liberties of Latium. This is almost certainly a mistranslation. Rather, "Cæsarea ... endowed by Clausius with the franchises and righs of a Colonie. The New Town, where the same emperor established a colony of veterans; and Tipasa, given the liberties of Latium ". (It's not entirely clear whether it's "New Town" or Tipasa that was given the liberties of Latium, but the latter seems more likely.)

29. Icosium: identified, notably by d'Anville, with Zershel (which is probably Cæsarea Iol, on archeological, geograhpical, and phonetic grounds) until archeological evidence established that Icosium stood where Algiers is now.

30. Rusoezus: Rusazus in most of the editions of Holland's day; I do not know where he came by the "oe".

31. Salde: "vel forte potius Saldæ", Hardouin, citing Martianus Capella.

32. Igelgili: I do not know where Holland gets the e: sc. Igilgili.

33. Succubar, Tubrisuptus: Succubar is the reading of the 1524 Cologne edition of Pliny; the manuscripts have Succabar. Tubrisuptus seems to be Holland's own mistake (or his printer's) for Tubusuptus.

34. Sardabala and Nabar: following (among others) Hermolaus and Dalechamps, reading "Sarabala, Nabar" for "Sardabal Aves Nabar". Hardouin restored the missing river.

35. 839: thus the editions of Holland's day. Hardouin corrects to 1038.

36. So named of chaunging their pasture: i.e., Νομάδες from νομή.

37. Surnamed of Cirtanes: rather, having the surname "Sittianorum". Cf. Mela, "Cirta procul a mari, nunc Sittianorum colonia: quondam regum donus : sed cum Syhacis foret, opulentissima".

38. a White: that is, Candidum. Cap Bon or Ras-el-Abiad.

39. Hipppo rased: that is a literal translation of Hippo Dirutum. But see the immediately following sentence. Hardouin notes "Incolae inquit quum Graece nesciant, dirutum vocant, pro Diarrhytum. Hanc vocem dirutum libri omnes miro consensu exhibent ... Διαῤῥυτὸν hoc est irriguum, propter aquarum irrigua. Paludem Hipponensem describit Plinius Iun. L. IX. ep. ad Caninium" (IX.33).

40. Utica...Cato: Now Biserte. On Cato, see Florus II.xiii; Plutarch, Cato the Younger gives a long account of his death in Utica.

41. Misua: Holland, or his printer, has Misna.

42. Kings: Hardouin, citing Eutropius , IV.11, believes these are the sons of Massanissa, or some of them (there were 44), particularly Miscipa.

43. At one time of the yeere onely: Holland's (unjustified) interpolation, not in the Latin. Read instead "By land also thither, the way is passeable by observation of the Starres and lyeth through desert sands and places full of serpents". Hardouin believed Pliny was describing the journey from inland Africa to Syrtes Minor. Bostock's English edition cites Marcus, saying that Pliny "pretty clearly" meant the route following the seacoast, but that does not fit with the remark that the route can be followed only by observation of the stars -- i.e., there are no landmarks and the traveller is reduced to navigating by the stars, as on the sea: that is, he's in a desert. There's no need for navigating by the stars if one is following a coastline. But the above description of Zeugitana and Byzacium, through which one would pass in travelling in a straight line from Carthage to the Syrtes, leaves some doubt of whether Pliny means them, either, since they can hardly be thought of as absolute desert. Adding to the confusion, Pliny in the following sections strikes inland. Altogether a difficult passage.

44. Psylli: on whom, see Book VII.

45. Diomedes: I do not know where Holland got this one. The textual variants include "comedis", "hiscomedis", "iscomedis", "codemis". Hardouin cites Ptolemy, lib. IV, cap. 5, Λυκομήδες λίμνη, "sed alieno, ut videtur, situ". Modern editions read Lycomedis (whether rightly or wrongly; it seems close enough to me).

46. Ocensus: sc. Oeensus for Oea. Ptolemy, IV, 3 Ἑῶα. It may be modern Tunis and if not is certainly nearby.

47. Cinyps: Κίνυψ: See Herodotus, 4.175, 4.198, 5.42 [WARNING: Perseus!]; Pomponius Mela, I.32; Cinyps, at, for pictures of the modern site. Ptolemy, IV.3 calls the river Cinyphs: Κίνυφος ποταμὸς.

48. Neapolis: Hardouin warns us to beware confusing this with the Neapolis mentioned above and adds "Quae [that is, this Neapolis] nunc Tripolis dicitur, Tripoli de Barbariae, regni cognominis caput." Taphra: Hardouin, citing Ptolemy 4.3, who places Γαράφα λιμνὴν between Neapolis and Oea, wants to emend this to Gaphara. Scylax refers to it as Γράφαρα (twice), but Hardouin thinks this is a typo. Few, if any, editors have adopted this suggestion. Abrotonum: thus some manuscripts and Hermolaus; or Habrotonum, if we follow Scylax. The other Leptis: that is, Leptis Magnis, alleged to be Lebida. Procopius, VI.4, Ptolemy, l.c., Pomponius Mela, l.c..

49. 313 miles: sc. 312. I do not know where Holland got 313; probably misread the number.

50. Lotophagi: Scylax's Λωτοφάγοι Λίβες, "qui loto vescebantur", says Hardouin; see also Book XIII on the lotos tree and those who eat it. Alachroas: thus all manuscripts, as "men who are the color of the sea". But Ptolemy IV.3 mentions Μάχρυες as living hereabouts, and Pliny VII mentions Machlyes Μάχλυας living near here. Herodotus, 4.178, cited (more or less accurately) by Hardouin, also mentions Μάκλυας as living hereabouts: "Λωτοφάγων δὲ τὸ παρὰ ϑάλασσαν ἔχονται Μάχλυες, λωτῷ μὲν καὶ οὗτοι χρεώμενοι — κατήκουσι δ᾽ ἐπὶ ποταμὸν μέγαν, τῷ οὔνομα Τρίτων ἐσὶν." Mayhoff opts for Machroas.

51. Of sand are they: the altars, of course. On the Philaena brothers and the altars, see Pomponius Mela, I.38 and I.28. See also Valerius Maximus, V.6.ext.4; Sallust, Bell. Iugurth. II.79 (and II.19).

52. Pallantias: after Minerva. Leaving aside the vexing question of where the ancients believed the lake to be, the Triton/Minerva connection is an odd one. According to Festus, the epithet "Tritogenia" because it was on the banks of the Triton that she was first seen.

53. 26 States: thus editions prior to Hardouin, who notes that the manuscripts available to him have DXVI, "qui numerus fidem omnem superat". Broterus notes that the number is perhaps too high but he nevertheless keeps the manuscript reading. "States" for "populos"; "tribes" or "nations" or possibly "towns" might be better.

54. 6 Colonies: Utina, Tuburbis, Cirta, Sicca, Carthage, and Maxulla. Utina and Tuburbis are mentioned by Ptolemy and both were episcopal cities before the Islamic conquest of North Africa.

55. Chilmanense: the readings vary here. Hardouin (following Hermolaus, who had made the same argument) cites Ptolemy's Κίλμα to justify Chilmanense, not found in the manuscripts. Mayhoff reads Chiniavense.

56. Tibigense: Holland has Tribigense, a typo.

57. Vagense: Holland has Vagiense, a typo.

58. Usaltianum: or Uzalitanum: a colony of Uzala(ns).

59. Arolitanum: I am not able to trace this reading, possibly a typo for the more usual Acolitanum. Acholitanum (or Acholla) might be better: Strabo XVII.3.12: Ἀχόλλα ἐλεύθεραι πόλεις.

60. Avinense: thus all editions of Holland's day. Hardouin suggests that it may be the same town that others call Vinense. Hermolaus, following Ptolemy, suggests Avittense from Ἀουΐττα "a town between Tabraca and the river Bagrad".

61. Madaurense: following Hermolaus's reading rather than the usual Materense. Hardouin, noting that we can accept Materense with the greatest faith, objects to Hermolaus's reading in terms relatively restrained, for a classicist.

62. Tiricense Tiphicense: thus Holland, following (more or less) the editions of his day. There is no manuscript authority for the Tiricense, although, as you might guess, manuscripts are a mess at this point. For Tiphicense there are variant readings too.

63. Natatondes: I can't trace this one. Usually Natabutes, Natabutae, etc.

64. Misulani: following the reading of the Gelenius (1554) edition for the usual Musulami. Gelenius cites Ptolemy IV.3 Μισούλαμοι. Cf. Tacitus Annales II.52, "Mussulamiorum".

65. Misives: apparently a typo for Nisives, itself a Hermolaus reading for Nicives, following Ptolemy's Νίσιβες.

66. Ethini: or Cinithi. The reading Ethini occurs in one of the major manuscripts and was adapted by most editions. Cinithi (or variants) occurs in others and is supported by Ptolemy IV.3 Κνίθιος and by Tacitus, loc. cit., who says they are neighbors of the Musulami.

67. Massini: read Mussini or Musuni. Ptolemy Μουσουνοὶ. I'm not sure where Holland came up with Massini, but presume the "a" is merely a typo.

68. Hammon: The famous oracle now usually referred to as that of "Jupiter Ammon"; Herodotus identifies Ammon and Jove/Jupiter/Zeus, 2.42. See Q. Curtius IV.7.5.

69. Fountain of the Sun: cf. Pliny II.228. There is a fountain of the Sun "in the Troglodytes' territory" and (possibly the same? see Pomponius Mela, I.34) a fountain of Apollo or of Jupiter Ammon (see Herodotus, 4.158) whose name, Κύρη, is possibly the origin of Cyrene and in turn Cyrenaica. The boundaries of Troglodytia are not clear.

70. Above-mentioned Hesperides: in section 3. Cf. Ammian, XXII.16.4, In Pentapoli Libya Cyrene est posita, urbs antiqua sed deserta, quam Spartanus condidit Battus, et Ptolomais et Arsinoe eademque Teuchira et Darnis et Berenice, quas Hesperidas appellant.

71. 385 miles: thus the editions of Holland's day. Hardouin, following manuscripts and Martianus Capella VI.672, corrects to 375.

72. Ptolemais, called Barce: Thus Strabo, XVII.3.20. But Ptolemy, IV.4 makes them two cities, Ptolemais on the coast, Barce inland. It seems probable that Ptolemais was founded as the port of Barce.

73. 250 miles: thus the editions of Holland's day; clearly an absurdity. Hardouin restores 40 from the manuscripts.

74. Ararauceles: the manuscripts have Acrauceles and variants. Broterus corrected to Ararauceles from Ptolemy, IV.4 and most editions followed him. Mayhoff, Acrauceles.

75. Mesammones: as though from μέσος and ἄμμος. Bochart suggests rather an origin in Hebrew with the meaning "men of Ammon".

76. The gum Laser: see Book XIX.

77. Nasamones: Holland has Masamones.

78. Masæ: sc. Macæ; Holland's error.

79. Pits: that is, wells.

80. Dydamum: read Cidamum.

81. Cornelius Balbo: see Cicero, ad Atticum XI.12.

82. Nation Bubeium, towne Vel: almost certainly a mistranslation: "Bubeium natio vel oppidum", "The nation or town of Bubeium" (or "of the Bubeians").

83. Viscera: following Chifflet (and noone else) for Discera.

84. Lying one to another together: that is, in the procession. Probably. The Latin is not very clear.

85. Gyri... Titus. A mistranslation, seemingly occasioned by "titulus" and Holland's forgetting that this is the description of a triumph, not a geographical description. "The hill Gyri, preceded by a placard stating that this was where gems were found."

86. Apis: See also Book VIII, chap. XLVI.

87. 12 miles: Because this reading is clearly in error, editors have suggested emending for XII, LXII or LXII·D. Probably 62 or thereabouts.

88. 1630 miles. Reading with Dalechamps XXX. Hardouin, XXVIII. Mayhoff, LXXXVIII; other editions have XXIX.

89. 35, 25: Hardouin reads 25, 22: "Ita MSS. omnes: non, ut editi, XXXV. Et mox, XXII. non XXV.".

90. Thoar: Ptolemy, IV.3 gives the name of the other town as Girra.

** Or 1500 paces, i. a mile and a halfe. [Some manuscripts and early editions read 200. Mayhoff says that editions before Hardouin read 200, but Broterus says that the editio princeps has 1500.]

91. Ægineti: 1601 has here a mark for a note, but no note. Cf. Virgil, Aeneid I.109 and the commentary of Servius; Strabo, II.5.19 and VI.2.11.

92. Leucæthiopes: thus Hermolaus, from Ptolemy's IV.6 Λευκαιϑίοπες, for the Plinian Leucoe Æthiopes.

93. Gymnetes: Holland has Gymetes.

94. Homer: Odyssey I.22-25:

ἀλλ’ ὁ μὲν Αἰϑίοπας μετεκίαθε τηλόθ’ ἐόντας, Αἰϑίοπας, τοὶ διχϑὰ δεδαίαται, ἔσχατοι ἀνδρῶν, οἱ μὲν δυσομένου Ὑπερίονος, οἱ δ’ ἀνιόντος, ἀντιόων ταύρων τε καὶ ἀρνειῶν ἑκατόμβης

95. Mavin: Chifflet (and Mayhoff, who says "va S", meaning "older editions before the 1851 edition, read Mavin", clearly not accurate if Hardouin is to be believed) Magium.

96. Gnashing noise: "stridor non vox"; in context, perhaps "hissing" would be better than "gnashing". Herodotus, however, IV.183 says that it is "squeaky", another meaning of "stridor". A note in the Bostock & Riley translation points out some contemporary evidence: "As some confirmation of this account, it is worthy of remark, that the Rock Tibboos of the present day, who, like the ancient Troglodytæ, dwell in caves, have so peculiar a kind of speech, that it is compared by the people of Aujelah to nothing but the whistling of birds."

97. Worship but devils: the translation is perhaps a bit tendentious. Cf. Mela, 1.39, "Augilae manes tantum deos putant...".

98. Paintings: As half-men, half goats. The Ægipans are also mentioned in Chap. I of this book.

99. Himantopodes: Greek Ἱμαντόποδες, with feet like weak straps.

b100aa. 8800 miles: thus Dalechamps. Readings vary widely here, where, as often in passages with numbers, the manuscripts are probably corrupt. Hardouin, 6375. Mayhoff, 5013.75.

b101aa. 256 miles: thus the editions of Holland's day; read 156 miles.

b102aa. Nitrites: thus the edition of Gelenius (1554) following Hermolaus; other editions have Metelites and variants on that.

103. Oasitæ: Holland has Ouasitæ. Some manuscripts easitae. Mayhoff says that editions prior to Hardouin have oeasitae. Hardouin says that Dalechamps has ouacitae. Strabo, XVII.1.6 and II.5.33 has αὐάσεις. "Oasis", clearly.

104. In it fishes...seen: this translation relies on the punctuation and an editorial interprolation of editions of Holland's day ("praepostere", says Hardouin in all justice): Ibi pisces reperiuntur alabetaæ, coracini, siluri, crocodilus quoque. Inde ob argumentum hoc Nili ortus creditus, Cæsareæ in Iseo dicatus ab eo spectatur hodie. It is the crocodile brought from the lake that was consecrated in the at Cæsareæ in Iseum; it (and the fishes) were held as proof that the lake is the source of the Nile.

105. With Mauritania Cæsariensis: that is, in (or within) Mauritania Cæsariensis.

106. Siris: following the reading of Hermolaus; but the manuscripts have Giris.

107. Homer: Odyssey IV.477. Heyschius' commentary says that Ægyptus is the river, from which the region has recently taken its name.

108. Triton: because, says Tzetzes, it has borne three names: Oceanus; then Aetus or Aquila; and then Ægyptus (we're still talking here about the river, not the region).

109. Sicinus: thus Holland. Pliny does not name the dog star.

110. Libra: Holland has Libia.

111. And the least ... Pharsalian warre...Pompey: Holland reads miniumque for minium quinque and the remainder of the translation is obscure: read "and the least was 5 cubits, in the year of the battle of Pharsalia, as if the very rriver by that prodigious token abhorred to see the murder of Pompey the Great".

112. Four islands Philæ: this is a difficult passage. There is only one island Philæ; the text reads "et ex adverso insula Philæ IIII". Some editions delete the "IIII"; others make "insula" "insulæ". Mayhoff inserts "est" after "Philæ" and makes "IIII" "IIII"; Hardouin in a note says that the IIII is 4,000 p. ("hoc est, insula quatuor millium passum ambitu, uti Syene peninsula mille tantum") but does not insert "est".

113. Sixteen miles above Syene: clearly something is wrong here, since (1) Pliny has already told us that Syene is the utmost reach of Egypt and (2) Elephantis is in fact opposite Syene. It has been suggested that Pliny meant to write here Philae rather than Syene.

*** i. The cittie of Jupiter. [Διὸς πὸλις μεγάλη, αἰ Θῆβαι says Ptolemy, IV.5.]

114. Captos: that is, Coptos.

115. Venus and Jupiter: that is, Aphroditopolis and the lesser Diopolis.

116. These townes of Mercury...Hercules: Holland seems to understand the following two towns as being "of Mercury". Rather, there is a town of Mercury, Hermupolis, as well as the fourth city of Hercules, already mentioned in section 50.

117. Libyan coast: here as elsewhere, "Libyan" means "west of the Nile". East of the Nile is "Arabian".

118. Labyrinth: not in the lake (although that seems to be what Pliny writes), but next to it, near Arsinoes. See Herodotus, II.148, and the note by How & Wells.

119. Crialon: Hardouin suggests that this may be Pliny's mistake for Crocodilon, Κροκοδέιλςν πόλις, mentioned by Herodotus, loc. cit. as being near the Labyrinth. A note in Bostock & Riley suggests that if the name is not an error, it could be from κριός, a town dedicated to the worship of rams. Perhaps, but the word would seem an unusual formation.

120. Town of the Sun: Helipolis.

or Rhacobes. [Sc. Rhacotes, correcting the mss from Strabo and Stephanus, ῾Ραχὼτης. Cf. Tacitus Histories IV.84, Rhacotis.]

121. Islands: Eight of them, says Strabo, XVII.1.14.

122. Thirty miles over: Holland skips a clause here: "thirty miles over, and 150 miles around" (or 250 miles, as Mayhoff reads).

123. 11: thus the editions of Holland's day. Hardouin corrects to 12.

124. Bastard mouths: false mouths (Pliny's "ora falsa", Ψευδοστόματα).

125. Phanuiticum: Manuscript readings vary here. Mayhoff reads Phatmiticum. Hardouin argues for Phatniticum, citing Strabo. Phanuiticum is Holland's misreading.

126. Buros: thus Dalechamps; sc. Butos.

127. Achribis: read Athribis.

128. Scenite: Holland has Screnite. Cf. Book VI, sect. 151. Ammian, XXII.15.2.

129. Gule of Heroopolis: the gulf of Suez.

130. Gulf of Elani: the gulf of Akabah. The text may have a problem here. Mayhoff, citing Book VI ss. 156 and , emends to Laeaniticus vel Aelaniticus; the readings including laelaniticus, lelaniticus, laenaliticus, and, in the 1554 Basil edition and those that follow it (including Holland), Aelaniticus.

131. Elana: or Laeana.

132. 120: read 125; a mistake of Holland.

133. Coele Syria: Pliny writes simply Coele; Coelesyria is understood (and supplied by Holland). "Hollow Syria", roughly, the valley between the Lebanon and Antilebanon ranges — the Bekaa Valley.

134. Adiabene, Assyria: See Ammian Adiabene, paraphrases Hardouin, was the noblest part of Assyria, containing the cities of Ninus, Arbela, and Gaugamela. See also Book VI sections 41 ff.

135. Zeugma: Holland has Zeugina. I do not know where he got this, if it is not a simple mistake.

136. Letters: see also Book VII, Chap. LVI.

137. Astrologie: Pliny's "ars siderum": both astrology and astronomy, but probably more the latter, especially as it relates to navigation. Cf. Propertius II.27.

138. Rhinocolura: Seneca says, de Ira III, XX, Sic rex Persarum totius populi nares recidit in Syria, unde Rhinocolura loco nomen est. Diodorus Siculus says much the same thing, ascribing the cutting-off of noses instead to the Ethiopian kings. Hardouin notes that Ptolemy IV.5 and Stephanus (and the Septuagint translation of Isaiah 27:12) have ῾Ρινοκόρουρα.

139. Angoris: editions (except for the editio princeps) had Angaris prior to Hardouin, who restores Argaris. Angoris is a Holland (or printer) mistake.

140. Iopppe ... before the deluge: Pomponius Mela, I.55: est Iope ante diluvium ut ferunt condita.... Now Jaffa.

141. Andromeda: until Perseus rescued her. Josephus Bell. Jud. III.9.3 says that in his day the chains (or at least the marks that they left) could be seen. The bones of the monster, says Pliny Book IX, were exhibited in Rome by Marcus Scaurus, who had them brought from Jaffa. Holland's interpretation of "vinculorum" is perhaps a bit broad.

142. Decreto: The Gelenius edition has Derceto (Decreto is Holland's error) for Ceto in this passage, although the two may be the same thing. See also sect. 81.

143. 180 miles: various editions have either 188 or 189.

144. Maxbota: Holland's gloss, apparently from Josephus Bel. Jud. IV.8.1, Μαβαρθὰ, according to TLG; or Maxbora in some Latin translations.

145. Peræa: Cf. Josephus Bell. Jud. II.20.4 καὶ τῆς ὑπὲρ Ἰορδάνην Περαίας.

146. Betholene, Tephenæ: Read rather Bethleptephon. Cf. Josephus Bel. Jud. IV.8.1, Τὴν Βευλεπτηφῶν τοπαρχίαν. And Herodium with an illustrious city of the same name is then the tenth toparchy, not a separate prinicipalitie. Cf. Bel. Jud. III.3.5.

147. Surname of Cæsarea: see Chap. XVIII, “Trachonitis Panias".

148. Tiberais … baths: See Josephus Ant. Jud. XVIII.2.3.

149. Took its name from Bitumen: that is from the Greek equivalent Ἄσπηαλτος.

150. No living body: Holland’s expansion of Pliny’s “no body”, after Aristotle (“ut fabulatur”) Meteorol. II. See Strabo XVI; Josephus Bell. Jud. IV.8.4.

151. Machærus: See Josephus Ant. Jud. XVIII.5.1. Callirhoe: Josephus Ant. Jud XVII.6.5, . Its Greek name Καλλιρόη (Jos.) Καλλιῤῥόη (Ptolem. V.15), “beautiful flow” “importeth praise and commendation” of its springs.