Sir Thomas Urquhart (1653) Logopandecteision. Book I: Neaudethaumata, pp. 1-24

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The First BOOK



To the Universall Language, intituled

N E A U D E T H A U M A T A.


Wonders of the new SPEECH, which,

as a Preface thereto, comprehendeth its most
necessary Prenoscendas, together with

some Miscellanie Articles concerning
the AUTHOR himself.

WORDS ARE the signes of things ; it being to signifie that they were instituted at first : nor can they be, as such, directed to any other end, whether they be articulate or inarticulate.

2. All things are either real or rational : and the real, either naturall or artificial.

3. There ought to be a proportion betwixt the sign and thing signified ; therefore should all things, whether real or rationall, have their proper words assigned unto them.

4. Man is called a Microcosme, because he may be his conceptions and words containe within him the representatives of what in the whole world is comprehended.

5. Seeing there is in nature such affinity 'twixt words & things, (as there ought to be in whatsoever is ordained for one another) that Language is to be accounted most conform to Nature, which with greatest variety expresseth all manner of things.

6. As all things of a single compleat being, by Aristotle into ten Classes were divided ; so may the words whereby those things are to be signified, be set apart in their several storehouses.

7. Arts, Sciences, Mechanick Trades, notionall faculties, and whatever is excogitable by man, have their own Method ; by vertue whereof, the Learned of these latter times have orderly digested them : Yet hath none hitherto considered of a mark, whereby words of the same Faculty, Art, Trade, or Science should be dignosced from those of another by the very sound of the word at the first hearing.

8. A Tree will be known by its leaves, a stone by its grit, a Flower by the smel, Meats by the taste, Musick by the ear, Colours by the eye, the severall Natures of things, with their properties and essentiall qualities, by the Intellect : and accordingly as the things are in themselves diversified, the Iudicious and Learned man after he hath conceived them aright, sequestreth them in the Severall cels of their understanding each in their definite and respective places.

9. But in manner of the words whereby those things are expressed, no Language ever hitherto framed, hath observed any order relating to the thing signified by them : for if the words be ranked in their Alphabeticall series, the things represented by them will fall to be in severall predicaments ; and if the things themselves be categorically classed, the word whereby they are made known will not be tyed to any Alphabetical rule.

10. This is an imperfection incident to all the Languages that ever yet have been known, by reason whereof, Forraign Tongues are said to be hard to learn ; and when obtained easily forgot.

11. The effigies of Iupiter in the likenesse of a Bull, should be liker to that of Io metamorphosed into a Cow, then to the statue of Bucephalus, which was a horse : and the picture of Alcibiades ought to have more resemblance with that of Coriolanus, being both handsome men, then with the Image of Thersites, who was of a deformed feature : just so should things semblable in Nature be represented by words of a like composure : and as the true intelligible species do present unto our minds the similitude of things as they are in the object ; even so ought the words expressive of our concepts so to agree or vary in their contexture, as the things themselves which are conceived by them do in their natures.

12. Besides this imperfection in all Languages there is yet another, That no Language upon the face of the earth hath a perfect Alphabet ; one lacking those letters which another that, none having all, and all of them in cumulo lacking some. But that which makes the defect so much the greater is, that these same few consonants and vowels commonly made use of, are never by two Nations pronounced after the same fashion ; the French A with the English, being the Greek Ητα ; and the Italian B with the Spanish, the Hebrew Vau.

13. This is that which maketh those of one dominion so unskilful in the idiome of another ; and after many yeers abode in a strange land, despair thereof, because as the waters of that stream cannot be wholesome, whose source is corrupted ; nor the superstructure sure, whereof the ground-work is ruinous : so doth the various manner of pronouncing one and the same Alphabet in severall Nations, produce this great and lamentable obstruction in the Discipline of Languages.

14. The G of the Latin word legit, is after four several manners pronounced by the English, French, Spanish, and Dutch : the Ch likewise is differently pronounced by divers Nations ; some uttering it after the fashion of the Hebrew Shin, as the French do in the word chasteau, chascun, chastier, chatel; or like the Greek Kappa, as in the Italian words, chiedere, chiazzare, chinatura or as in Italy are sounded the words ciascheduno, ciarlatano; for so do the Spanish and English pronounce it, as in the words achaque, leche; chamber, chance: other Nations of a gutteral flexibility, pronounce it after the fashion of the Greek χ. Nor need we to labor for examples in other letters ; for there is scarce any hitherto received, either consonant or vowel, which in some one and other taking in all Nations, is not pronounced after three or four several fashions.

15. As the Alphabets are imperfect, some having but 19 letters, others 22. and some 23. few exceeding that number : so do the words composed of those Letters in the several Languages, come far short of the number of things, which to have the reputation of a perfect tongue, ought to be expressed by them.

16. For supply of this deficiencie, each Language borrows from another ; nor is the perfectest among them, without being beholden to another, in all things enunciable, bastant to afford instruction : many Astronomical and Medicinal terms have the Greeks borrowed from the Arabians, for which they by exchange have from the Grecians received payment of many words naturalized in their Physical, Logical, and Metaphysical Treatises. As for the Latin, it oweth all its Scientifick dictions to the Greek and Arabick : yet did the Roman Conquest give adoption to many Latin words, in both these languages, especially in matters of military discipline, and prudential Law.

17. And as for all other Languages as yet spoke, though to some of them be ascribed the title of original Tongues, I may safely avouch there is none of them which of it self alone is able to afford the smattring of an elocution fit for indoctrinating of us in the precepts and maximes of moral and intellectual vertues.

18. But which is more, and that which most of all evinceth the sterility of all the Languages that since the Deluge have been spoke, though all of them quintesenced in one, capable of the perfections of each, yet that one so befitted and accommodated for compendiousness and variety of phrase, should not be able, amidst so great wealth, to afford, without circumlocution, the proper and convenient representation of a thing, yea of many thousands of things, whereof each should be expressed with one single word alone.

19. Some Languages have copiousness of discourse, which are barren in composition : such is the Latine. Others are compendious in expression, which hardly have any flexion at all : of this kind are the Dutch, the English, and Irish.

20. Greek hath the agglutinative faculty of incorporating words ; yet runneth not so glib in Poesie as doth the Latine, though far more abundant. The Hebrew likewise, with its auxiliary Dialects of Arabick, Caldean, Syriack, Æthiopian, and Samaritan, compoundeth prettily, and hath some store of words ; yet falleth short by many stages of the Greek.

21. The French, Spanish, and Italians, are but Dialects of the Latine, as the English is of the Saxon Tongue ; though with this difference, that the mixture of Latine with the Gaulish, Moresco, and Gotish tongues, make up the three first Languages ; but the meer qualification of the Saxon with the old British, frameth not the English to the full, for that, by its promiscuous and ubiquitary borrowing, it consisteth almost of all Languages : which I speak not in dispraise thereof, although I may with confidence avere, that were all the four aforesaid Languages stript of what is not originally their own, we should not be able with them all, in any part of the world, to purchase so much as our breakfast in a Market.

22. Now to return from these to the learned Languages ; we must acknowledge it to be very strange, why, after thousands of yeers continual practice in the polishing of them by men of approved faculties, there is neither in them, nor any other Tongue hitherto found out, one single word expressive of the vice opposite either to Temperance or Chastity in the defect ; though many rigid Monks, even now adays, be guilty of the one, as Diogenes of old was of the other.

23. But that which makes this disease the more incurable, is, that when an exuberant spirit would to any high researched conceit adapt a peculiar word of his own coyning, he is branded with Incivility, if he apologize not for his boldness, with a Quod ita dixerim parcant Ciceronianæ manes, Ignoscat Demosthenis genius, and other such phrases acknowledging his fault of making use of words never uttered by others, or at least by such as were most renowned for eloquence.

24. Though Learning sustain great prejudice by this restraint of liberty to endenizon new Citizens in the Commonwealth of Languages, yet do I conceive the reason thereof to proceed from this, That it is thought a less incongruity to express a thing by circumlocution, then by appropriating a single word thereto, to transgress the bounds of the Language ; as in Architecture it is esteemed an error of less consequence to make a circuitory passage from one room to another, then by the extravagancie of an irregular sallie, to frame projectures disproportionable to the found of the house.

25. Thus is it, that as according to the largeness of the plat of a building, and compactedness of its walls, the Workmaster contriveth his roofs, platforms, outjettings, and other such like parts and portion of the whole : just so, conform to the extent and reach which a Language in its flexions and compositions hath obtained at first, have the sprucest Linguists, hitherto been pleased to make use of the words thereto belonging.

26. The Bonification and virtuification of Lully, Scotus's Hexeity, and Albedineity of Suarez are words exploded by those that affect the purity of Latine diction ; yet if such were demanded, what other no less concise expression would comport with the neatness of that language, their answer would be altum silentium: so easie a matter it is for many to finde fault with what they are not able to amend.

27. Nevertheless, why for representing to our understandings the essence of accidents, the fluency of the form as it is in fieri; the faculty of the Agent, and habit that facilitates it, with many thousands of other such expressions, the tearms are not so genuine, as of the members of a mans body, or utensils of his house ; and the reason is, because the first inventers of Languages, who contrived them for necessity, were not so profoundly versed in Philosophical quiddities, as those that succeeded after them ; whose literature increasing, procured their excursion beyond the representatives of the common objects, imagined by their forefathers.

28. I have known some to have built houses for necessity, having no other aime before their eyes, but barely to dwell in them ; who nevertheless in a very short space were so enriched, that after they had taken pleasure to polish and adorn, what formerly they had but rudely squared, their moveables so multiplyed upon them, that they would have wished they had made them of a larger extent.

29. Even so though these Languages may be refined by some quaint derivatives and witty compositions ; like the striking forth of new lights and doors, outjetting of Crenels, erecting of prickets, barbicans, and such like various structures upon one and the same foundation ; yet being limited to a certain basis, beyond which they versed in them must not pass, they cannot roam at such random as otherwise they might, had their language been of a larger scope at first.

30. Thus albeit Latine be far better polished now, then it was in the dayes of Ennius, and Livius Andronicus, yet had the Latinists at first been such Philosophers as afterward they were, it would have attained to a great deal of more perfection then it is at for the present.

31. What I have delivered in freedome of the learned Languages, I would not have wrested to a sinister sense, as if I meant any thing to their disparagement ; for truly I think the time well bestowed, which boyes in their tender yeers employ towards the learning of them, in a subordination to the excellent things that in them are couched.

32. But ingenuously I must acknowledge my averseness of opinion from those who are so superstitiously addicted to these Languages, that they account it learning enough to speak them, although they knew nothing else ; which is an errour worthy rebuke, seeing Philosophia sunt res, non verba; and that whatever the signes be, the things by them signified ought still to be of greater worth.

33. For it boots not so much, by what kind of tokens any matter be brought into our minde, as that the things made known unto us, by such representatives, be of some considerable value : not much unlike the Innes-a-court-gentlemen at London, who usually repairing to their commons at the blowing of a horn, are better pleased with such a signe (so the fare be good) then if they were warned to courser cates, by the sound of a Bell or Trumpet.

34. Another reason prompteth me thereto, which is this, That in this frozen Climate of ours, there is hardly any that is not possessed with the opinion, that not only the three fore-named Languages, but a great many other, whom they call Originals (whereof they reckon ten or eleven in Europe, and some fifty eight more, or thereabouts, in other Nations) were at the confusion of Babel, immediately from God, by a miracle, infused into men ; being induced to believe this, not so much for that they had not perused the interpretation of the Rabbies on that text, declaring the misunderstanding whereunto the builders were involved by diversity of speech, to have proceeded from nothing else, but their various and discrepant pronunciation of one and the same Language, as that they deemed Languages to be of an invention so sublime, that naturally the wit of man was not able to reach their composure.

35. Some believe this so pertinaciously that they esteem all men infidels that are of another faith ; whilst in the mean while, I may confidently assever, that the assertors of such a tenet, doe thereby extremely dishonour God, who doing whatever is done, by nature, as the actions of an Ambassador (as an Ambassador) are reputed to be those of the Soveraign that sent him, would not have the power he hath given to nature to be disclaimed by any, or any thing said by us in derogation thereof.

36. Should we deny our obedience to the just decree of an inferiour judge, because he from whom his authority is derived, did not pronounce the sentence? Subordinate Magistrates have their power, even in great matters ; which to decline, by saying, they have no authority, should make the averrer fall within the compass of a breach of the Statute called scandalum magnatum.

37. There are those with us, that wear gowns and beards longer then ever did Aristotle and Æsculapius; who when they see an Eclipse of the Sun or Moon, or a comet in the aire, straight would delude the commons with an opinion that those things are immediately from God ; for the sins of the people ; as if no naturall cause could be produce for such apparitions.

38. I saw once a young man, who for his cunning conveyance in the Feats of Leger Demaine, was branded, by some of that Fry, for Sorcery, and another (for being able, by vertue of the Masson word, to make a Masson, whom he had never seene before, without speaking, or any other apparent signe, come, and salute him) reputed, by many of the same Litter, to have had a familiar, their grosse ignorance moving them, to call that supernaturall, or above the naturall reach of meere man, whereof they knew not the cause.

39. By which meanes, Mathematicall Thaumaturgies, Opticall magick, secrets of nature, and other Philosophicall mysteries, being esteemed to be rancke Witch-craft, they ruine the best part of Learning, and make their owne unskilfullnes Supreame Judge, to passe an Irrevocable sentence upon the Condemnation of knowledge.

40. The matter notwithstanding would be of lesse danger, were this the worst : but to this ignorance of theirs, is concomitant so much wickednes, that when an action of any extraordinary performance, is done, although by a man of a most approvable conversation & to a very good end, such as the curing of the diseased, or releeving men out of apparent peril, yet if the cause thereof be unknowne to them, they will not be so charitable, as to attribute the effect to a good Angel, albeit their faith obliege them to beleeve, that the Spirits belonging to any of the nine celestiall orders, are, for the atchievement of such masteries, in nothing inferior to the infernall Demons : but instead of Gabriell, Raphaell, Michaell, and such good Spirits, by whom (I think) it is more probable, an honest man would be assisted, in works of a strange, and hidden operation, then by the bad ones, they ascribe the wonderfullnes of the exploit,to the inspiration of Beelzebub, Abadon, Lucifer, or some other of the Fiends of Hell ; so malevolently they asperse the reputation of gallant men, whose deeds surpass their Capacity.

41. Truly, those two qualities of ignorance, and wickednes conjoyned, are of such pernicious consequence, that no Nation, or Common-wealth, wherein they get footing, is able long to subsist, for rapine, covetousness, and extortion, flowing from the one, as from the other, doth all manner of Basenes, Pusillanimity, and cowardize, ignorance affecteth the Braine, and wickednes the Heart : Yet both the Braine, and Heart of a common weale, by the mischievously unskillfull, and illiterately, malicious, are equally depraved.

42. For remedy of so generall a Calamity, seeing universality hath its existence in individualls, would each amend but one, the totall would be quickly rid of this Lamentable infection.

43. Therefore, since ever I understood any thing, knowing that the welfare of the Body of a government, consisteth in the intirenes of its noble parts, I alwayes endeavoured to employ the best of my Brain, and Heart towards the furtherance of the Honour of that Country, unto which I did owe my birth.

44. In prosecuting whereof, as the heart is primum vivens so was it my heart, which, in my younger years, before my braines were ripened for eminent undertakings, gave me the courage for adventuring in a forrain Climat, thrice to enter the Lists against men of 3 severall nations, to vindicate my native Country from the Calumnies, wherewith they had aspersed it, wherein it pleased God so to conduct my fortune, that after I had disarmed them, they in such sort acknowledged their Error, and the obligation they did owe me, for sparing their Lives, which justly by the Law of Arms I might have taken, that in Lieu of three enemies, that formerly they were, I acquired three constant Friends, both to my selfe, and my compatriots, whereof, by severall gallant testimonies, they gave evident proofe, to the Improvement of my Countreys credit, in many occasions.

45. As my Heart, hath been thus devoted to the love of my native soile, so have my Braines, to the Honour thereof discharged so much duty, that betwixt what is printed, and what ready for the presse, I have set forth above a hundred severall Bookes, on Subjects never hitherto thought upon by any.

46. Let no man think, that I have spoke this in hope of future benefit, or by way of regret, I should have faild thereof in times past* ; vertue (in my estimation) whether morall, or intellectuall, carrying alwayes along with it a recompence sufficient : nor yet out of pride, or vaine glory in extolling of my own praises, which (as willingly as to live) I would have smothered, but that the continuall receiving of bad offices, for my good intentions, hath wrought this excursion out of my pen.

47. Could any man imagine, I should have been singled out amongst all those of Scotland, to suffer most prejudice, without a Cause ; that the wickedest of all the Land, should be permitted to possesse the best part of my Inheritance, under colour of a law by meer iniquity ; and other, little better then he, to gape after the remainder, without any fault of mine.

48. Who would think, that, some of my Tenants (whilst I was from home) being killed, and neer upon three thousand pound sterlin worth of Goods taken from them, by a pack of villaines, who could pretend for their robery no other excuse, but that they had been plundered by others, no reparation or justice should be granted, although oftentimes demanded : that I should be extorsed, in matter of publique dues, beyond any of my neighbours : that a garrison should be placed within my house, and kept there ten months together, to my almost utter undoing, upon no other pretence, but that the stance thereof is stately, and the house it selfe of a notable good Fabrick, and contrivance, and in the mean while, a party both of horse and foot remain nevertheles quartered upon my lands till the remotest Highlands should pay their fesse-mony : that neighbor Garisons, besides my own, should by parties inforce me, upon their Governours bare tickets, to furnish them with what provisions they pleased, and yet nothing thereof be allowed unto me, although I presented a Bill to that purpose of the Scots Committee of Estates, as I did for the quartering of severall Troops of horse, for many months together, without any allowance.

49. These grievous pressures with many other, and as many more I have sustained by the ministry of the Land, whereof I make account in the large treatise of my Aporrexises to give notice more at length, have occasiond this digression in a part, which likewise having proceeded from a serious consideration of the two aforesaid scurvie quallities, that move the Inhabitants of this Ile to run every foot supernatural causes, engageth me to say, that as it is a maxim in Philosophy, that entia non sunt multiplicanda sine necessitate. So : that it is lesse in congruity to avouch, that a thing hath miraculously been done by God, or that for atchievement thereof the help of an evill Spirit (because of his being reputed of more experience, then man) hath been required thereto, when, in the mean while perhaps, the performance of it, by secondary means of an ordinary working, is obvious to any that have the dexterity to open his eyes to see the truth.

50. For which cause, they are much to blame, that think it impossible for any man naturally to frame a language of greater perfection then Greek, Hebrew, or Latine.

51. For who, in stead of affording the true cause of a thing, unnecessarily runs to miracles, tacitely acknowledgeth that God naturally cannot do it : wherein he commiteth blasphemie, as that Souldier may be accounted guilty of contumacie and disobedience, who rejecting the Orders wherewith an inferiour Officer is authorized to command him, absolutely refuseth compearance, unless the General himself come in person to require it of him.

52. As there is a possibility such a Language may be, so doe I think it very requisite such a Language were, both for affording conciseness, and abundance of expression.

53. Such as extoll those Languages most, are enforced sometimes to say, that Laborans penuria verborum; and thereunto immediately subjoyn this reason, Quia plures sunt res quam verba.

54. That is soon said ; and, ad pauca respicientes facile enuntiant. But here I ask them, how they come to know that there are more Things than Words, taking Things (as in this sense they ought to be taken) for Things universal ; because there is no word spoken, which to the conceit of man is not able to represent more individuals then one, be it Sun, Moon Phoenix, or what you will, even amongst Verbs, and Syncategorematical signes, which do onely suppone for the modalities of things : therefore is each word the sign of an universal thing ; Peter signifying either this Peter, or that Peter; and any whatever name, surname, or title, being communicable to one and many.

55. Thus though both words and thoughts, as they are signs, be universal ; yet do I believe that those who did attribute less universality to words then things, knew not definitely the full number of words taking words for any articulate pronunciation.

56. Nay, I will go further : There is no Alphabet in the world, be the Calculator never so well skill'd in Arithmetick, by vertue whereof the exact number of words may be known ; because that number must comprehend all the combinations that Letters can have with one another : and this cannot be done, if any letter be wanting ; and consequently, by no Alphabet as yet framed, wherein (as I have already said in the twelfth Article) there is a deficiency of many letters.

57. The Universal alphabet therefore must be first conceived, before the exactness of that computation can be attained unto.

58. Then is it, when having couched an Alphabet materiative of all the words the mouth of man, with its whole implements, is able to pronounce, and bringing all these words within the systeme of a Language, which, by reason of its logopandochie, may deserved be intituled, The Universal Tongue, that nothing will better merit the labour of a Grammatical Arithmetician, then, after due enumeration, hinc inde, to appariate the words of the Universall Language with the things of the Universe.

59. The analogie therein 'twixt the signe and things signified holding the more exactly, that as, according to Aristotle, there can be no more worlds but one, because all the matter whereof worlds can be composed, is in this : so can there be no Universall Language but this I am about to divulge unto the world, because all the words enunciable are in it contained.

60. If any officious Critick will run to the omnipotency of God for framing more worlds, (according to the common saying, Nothing is impossible to God, that implies not a contradiction) so must he have recourse to the same omnipotent power for furnishing of man with other speech-tools then his tongue, throat, roof of mouth, lips, and teeth, before the contexture of another Universal Language can be warped.

61. That I should hit upon the invention of that, for the furtherance of Philosophy, and other Disciplines and Arts, which never hitherto hath been so much as thought upon by any ; and that in a matter of so great extent, as the expressing of all the things in the world, both in themselves, actions, ways of doing, situation, pendicles, relations, connexions, pathetick interpositions, and all other appurtenances to a perfect elocution, without beholding to any Language in the world insomuch as one word, will hardly be believed by our fidimplicitary Gown-men, who, satisfied with their predecessors contrivances, and taking all things literally, without examination, blaterate, to the nauseating even of vulgar ears, those exotick Proverbs, There is no new thing under the Sun, Nihil dictum quod non dictum prius, and Beware of Philosophers, authorizating this on Paul, the first on Solomon, and the other on Terence.

62. But, pour souls, they understand not that in the passage of Solomon is meant, that there is no innovation in the essence of natural things ; all transmutations on the same matter, being into forms, which, as they differ from some, so have an essential uniformity with others preexistent in the same kind.

63. And when it was said by Paul, Beware of Philosophers, he meant such Sophisters as themselves, who under the vizzard of I know not what, corrupt the channels of the truth, and pervert all Philosophy and Learning.

64. As for the sayings of Terence, whether Scipio couched them, or himself, they ought to be inferred rather as testimonies of neat Latine, then for asserting of infallible verities.

65. If there hath been no new thing under the Sun, according to the adulterate sense of those Pristinary Lobcocks, How comes the invention of Syllogisms to be attributed to Aristotle, that of the Sphere to Archimedes, and Logarithms to Naper? It was not Swart then, and Gertudenburg, that found out Gunpowder, and the Art of Printing ; for these two men lived after the decease of Solomon.

66. Had there been Canon in Solomons dayes, Rehoboam (by all appearance) would have made use of them for the recovery of his inheritance ; nor had some mention of Artillery been omitted in the Books of the Macchabees.

67. Pancerol's Treatise de novis adimpertis (although Polydor Virgil were totally forgot) would be, had there been no new thing since Solomon penn'd Ecclesiastes, but as a discourse of Platonick reminiscencies, and calling to mind some formerly lost fancies.

68. Truly I am so far from being of the opinion of those Archæomanetick Coxcombs, that I really think, there will alwayes be new inventions, where there are excellent spirits.

69. For as I ascribe unto my self the invention of the Trissotetrail Trigonometry, for facility of calculation by representatives of letters and syllables ; the proving of the equipollencie and opposition both of plain and modal enunciations by rules of Geometry, the unfolding of the chiefest parts of Philosophy by a continuated Geographical allegory ; and above a hundred other several books on different subjects, the conceit of so much as one whereof never entered into the brains of any before my self (although many of them have been lost at Worcester-fight :) so am I confident, that others after me, may fall upon some strain of another kind, never, before, that, dreamed upon by those of foregoing ages.

70. Now to the end the Reader may be more enamored of the Language, wherein I am to publish a Grammar and Lexicon, I will here set down some few qualities and advantages peculiar to it self, and which no Language else (although all other concurred with it) is able to reach unto.

71. First, There is not a word utterable by the mouth of man, which in this language hath not a peculiar signification by it self ; so that the allegation of Bliteri by the Summulists, will be of small validity.

72. Secondly, Such as will harken to my instructions, if some strange word be proposed to them, whereof there are many thousands of millions, deviseable by the wit of man, which never hitherto by any breathing have been uttered, shall be able, although he know not the ultimate signification thereof, to declare what part of speech it is ; or if a Noun, unto what predicament or class it is to be reduced ; whether it be the sign of a real or notional thing, or somewhat concerning mechanick Trades in their Tooles, or tearmes ; or if real, whether natural or artificial, compleat, or incompleat ; for words here do suppose for the things which they signifie ; as when we see my Lord Generals picture, we say, there is my Lord General.

73. Thirdly, This world of words hath but two hundred and fifty prime radices, upon which all the rest are branched : for better understanding whereof, with all its dependant boughs, sprigs, and ramelets, I have before my Lexicon set down the division thereof (making use of another allegory) into so many Cities, which are subdivided into streets, they again into lanes, those in to houses, these into stories, whereof each room standeth for a word : and all these so methodically, that who observeth my precepts therein, shall at the first hearing of a word, know to what City it belongeth, and consequently not to be ignorant of some generall signification thereof, till after a most exact prying into all its letters, finding the street, lane, house, story and room thereby denotated, he punctually hit upon the very proper thing it represents in its most specifical signification.

74. Fourthly, By vertue of adjectious syllabicals annexible to Nouns and Verbs, there will arise of several words, what compound, what derivative, belonging in this Language to one Noune or to one Verb alone, a greater number then doth pertain to all the parts of speech, in the most copious Language in the world besides.

75. Fifthly, So great energy to every meanest constitutive part of a word in this Language is appropriated, that one word thereof, though but of seven syllables at most shall comprehend that which no Language else in the world is able to express in fewer then fourscore and fifteen several words ; and that not only a word here and there for masteries sake, but several millions of such ; which, to any initiated in the rudiments of my Grammar, shall be easie to frame.

76. Sixthly, In the cases of the declinable parts of speech, it surpasseth all other Languages whatsoever : for whilst others have but five or six at most, it hath ten, besides the nominative.

77. Seventhly, There is none of the learned Languages, but hath store of Nouns defective of some case or other, but in this Language there is no Heteroclite in any declinable word, nor redundancie or deficiencie of cases.

78. Eighthly, Every word capable of number, is better provided therewith in this Language, then by any other : for instead of two or three numbers which others have, this affordeth you four ; to wit, the singular, dual, plural, and redual.

79. Ninthly, It is not in this as other Languages, wherein some words lack one number, and some another : for here each casitive or personal part of speech is endued with all the numbers.

80. Tenthly, In this Tongue there are eleven genders ; wherein likewise it exceedeth all other Languages.

81. Eleventhly, Verbs, Mongrels, Participles, and Hybrids, have all of them ten Tenses, besides the present ; which number, no Language else is able to attain to.

82. Twelfthly, though there be many conjugable words in other Languages defective of Tenses, yet doth this Tongue allow of no such anomaly, but granteth all to each.

83. Thirteenthly, In lieu of six Moods which other Languages have at most, this one injoyeth seven in its conjugable words.

84. Fourteenthly, Verbs here, or other conjugable parts of speech, admit of no want of Moodes, as do other Languages.

85. Fifteenthly, In this Language, the Verbs and Participles have four voices, although it was never heard that ever any other Language had above three.

86. Sixteenthly, No other Tongue hath above eight or nine parts of speech ; but this hath twelve.

87. Seventeenthly, For variety of diction in each part of speech, it surmounteth all the Languages in the world.

88. Eighteenthly, Each Noun thereof, or Verb, may begin or end with a Vowel or Consonant, as to the peruser shall seem most expedient.

89. Nineteenthly, Every word of this Language declinable or indeclinable hath at least ten several synomyma's.

90. Twentiethly, each of these synomyma's, in some circumstance of the signification, differeth from the rest.

91. One and twentiethly, Every faculty, science, art, trade, or discipline, requiring many words for expression of the knowledge thereof, hath each its respective root from whence all the words thereto belonging are derived.

92. Two and twentiethly, In this Language the opposite members of a division have usually the same letters in the words which signifie them ; the initial and final letter being all one, with a transmutation only in the middle ones.

93. Three and twentiethly, Ever word in this Language signifieth as well backward as forward ; and however you invert the letters, still shall you fall upon significant words : whereby a wonderfull facility is obtained in the making of Anagrams.

94. Four and twentiethly, There is no Language in the world, but for every word thereof, it will afford you another of the same signification, of equal syllables with it, and beginning or ending, or both, with vowels or consonants as it doth.

95. Five and twentiethly, by vertue hereof, there is no Hexameter, Elegiack, Saphick, Asclepiad, Iambick, or any other kind of Latine or Greek verse, but I will afford you another in this Language of the same sort, without a syllable more or less in the one then the other, Spondæ answering to Spondæ, dactil to dactil, cæsure to cæsure, and each foot to other, with all uniformity imaginable.

96. Six and twentiethly, As it trotteth easily with metrical feet, so at the end of the career of each line, hath it the dexterity, after the manner of our English and other vernaculary Tongues, to stop with the closure of a rime ; in the framing whereof, the well-versed in that Language shall have so little labour, that for every word therein he shall be able to furnish at least five hundred several monosyllables of the same termination with it.

97. Seven and twentiethly, in translating verses of any vernaculary Tongue, such as Italian, French, Spanish, Slavonian, Dutch, Irish, English, or whatever it be, it affords you of the same signification, syllable for syllable, and in the closure of each line a rime, as in the original.

98. Eight and twentiethly, by this Language, and the Letters thereof, we may doe such admirable feats in numbers, that no cyphering can reach its compendiousness : for whereas the ordinary way of numbring by thousands of thousands of thousands of thousands, doth but confuse the hearers understanding ; to remedy which, I devised, even by cyphering it self, a farre more exact manner of numeration, as in the Treatise of Arithmetick which I have ready for the Press, is evidently apparent ; This Language affordeth so concise words for numbering, that the number for setting down whereof, would require in vulgar Arithmetick, more figures in a row then there might be grains of sand containable from the center of the earth, to the highest heavens, is in it expressed by two letters.

99. Nine and twentiethly, what rational Logarithms doe by writing, this Language doth by heart ; and by adding of letters, shall multiply numbers, which is a most exquisite secret.

100. Thirtiethly, the digits are expressed by vowels, and the consonants stand for all the results of the Cephalism, from ten to eighty one, inclusively ; whereby many pretty Arithmetical tricks are performed.

101. One and thirtiethly, in the denomination of the fixed Stars, it affordeth the most significant way imaginary : for by the single word alone which represents the Star, you shall know the magnitude, together with the longitude and latitude, both in degrees and minutes of the Star that is expressed by it.

102. Two and thirtiethly, by one word in this Language, we shall understand what degree or what minute of the degree of a sign in the Zodiack, the Sun or Moon, or any other planet is.

103. Three and thirtiethly, as for the year of God, the moneth of that yeer, week of the moneth, day of that week, partition of the day, hour of that partition, quarter and half quarter of the hour, a word of one or two syllables at most in this Language will express it all to the full.

104. Four and thirtiethly, in this Language, also, words expressive of herbs, represent unto us with what degree of cold, moisture, heat, or driness they are qualifyed ; together with some other property distinguishing them from other herbs.

105. Five and thirtiethly, in matter of Colours, we shall learn by words in this Language the proportion of light, shadow, or darkness commixed in them.

106. Six and thirtiethly, in the composition of syllables by vowels and consonants, it affordeth the aptest words that can be imagined, for expressing how many vowels and consonants any syllable is compounded of, and how placed in priority and situation to one another. Which secret in this Language, is exceeding necessary, for understanding the vigour of derivatives in their variety of signification.

107. Seven and thirtiethly, for attaining to that dexterity which Mithridates King of Pontus was said to have, in calling all his soldiers of an Army of threescore thousand men, by their names and surnames, this Language will be so convenient, that if a General, according to the Rules thereof, will give new names to his souldiers, whether Horse, Foot, or Dragoons, as the French use to do to their Infantry by their noms de guerre, he shall be able, at the first hearing of the word that represents the name of a souldier, to know of what Brigade, Regiment, Troop, Company, Squadron, or Division he is ; and whether he be of the Cavalry, or of the Foot ; a single Souldier, or an Officer, or belonging to the Artillery or Baggage ; which device, in my opinion, is not unuseful for those great Captains that would endear themselves in the favour of the Souldiery.

108. Eight and thirtiethly, in the contexture of nouns, pronouns, and preposital articles united together, it administreth many wonderful varieties of Laconick expressions, as in the Grammar thereof shall more at large be made known unto you.

109. Nine and thirtiethly, every word in this Language is significative of a number ; because, as words may be increased by addition of letters and syllables ; so of numbers is there a progress in infinitum.

110. Fourtiethly, in this Language every number, how great soever, may be expressed by one single word.

111. One and fourtiethly, As every number essentially differeth from another, so shall the words expressive of severall numbers, be from one another distinguished.

112. Two and Fourtiethly, No Language but this hath in its words the whole number of letters, that is, ten vowels, and five and twenty consonants ; by which means there is no word escapes the latitude thereof.

113. Three and fourtiethly, As its interjections are more numerous, so are they more emphatical in their respective expression of passions, than that part of speech is in any other Language whatsoever.

114. Four and fourtiethly, The more syllables there be in any one word of this Language, the manyer several significations it hath : with which propriety no other Language is endowed.

115. Five and fourtiethly, All the several genders in this Language, are as well competent to verbs as nouns : by vertue whereof, at the first uttering of a verb in the active voice, you shall know whether it be a god, a goddess, a man, a woman, a beast, or any thing inanimate, (and so thorow the other five genders) that doth the action : which excellence is altogether peculiar unto this Language.

116. Six and fourtiethly, In this Language there is an art, out of every word, of what kind of speech soever it be, to frame a verb ; whereby, for expressing all manner of actions, a great facility is attained unto.

117. Seven and fourtiethly, to all manner of verbs, and many syncategorematical words, is allowed in this Language a flexion by Cases, unknown to other Tongues, thereby to represent unto our understandings more compendious expressions then is possible to afford by any other means.

118. Eight and fourtiethly, Of all Languages, this is the most compendious in complement, and consequently, fittest for Courtiers and Ladies.

119. Nine and fourtiethly, for writing of Missives, Letters of State, and all other manner of Epistles, whether serious or otherways, it affordeth the compactest stile of any Language in the world, and therefore, of all other the most requisite to be learned of any States-men and Merchants.

120. Fiftiethly, No Language in matter of Prayer and Ejaculations to Almighty God, is able, for conciseness of expression, to compare with it ; and therefore, of all other, the most fit for the use of Church-men, and spirits inclined to devotion.

121. One and fiftiethly, This Language hath a modification of the tense, whether present, preterite, or future, of so curious invention for couching much matter in few words, that no other Language ever had the like.

122. Two and fiftiethly, There is not a proper name in any Country of the world, for which this Language affords not a peculiar word, without being beholding to any other.

123. Three and fiftiethly, In many thousands of words belonging to this Language, there is not a Letter which hath not a peculiar signification by it self.

124. Four and fiftiethly, The polysyllables of this Language do all of them signifie by their monosyllables ; which no word in any other Language doth, ex instituto, but the compound ones : for though the syllabical parts of exlex separately signifie as in the compound ; yet those of homo doe it not, nor yet those of doce, or domus, as in the whole : and so it is in all other Languages except the same : for there are in the Italian and Latine Tongues, words of ten, eleven, or twelve syllables, whereof not one syllable by it self doth signifie any thing at all in that Language, of what it doth in the whole ; as adolescenturiatissimamente, honorificieabilitudinitatibus, &c.

125. Five and fiftiethly, all the Languages in the world will be beholding to this, and this to none.

126. Six and fiftiethly, there is yet another wonder in this Language, which although a little touched by the by in the fiftie eighth article of this Preface, I will mention yet once more ; and it is this, That though this language have advantage of all other, it is impossible any other in time coming surpass it, because, as I have already said, it comprehendeth, first, all words expressible ; and then, in matter of the obliquity of the cases and tenses, the contrivance of undeclinable parts ; and right disposure of vowels and consonants, for distinguishing of various significations within the latitude of letters, cannot be afforded a way so expedient.

127. Seven and fiftiethly, the greatest wonder of all, is, that of all the Languages in the world, it is easiest to learn ; a boy of ten years old, being able to attain to the knowledge thereof, in three moneths space ; because there are in it many facilitations for the memory, which no other Language hath but it self.

128. Eight and fiftiethly, sooner shall one reach the understanding of things to be signified by the words of this Language, then by those of any other, for that Logarithms in comparison of absolute numbers, so do the words thereof in their initials respectively vary according to the nature of the things which they signifie.

129. Nine and fiftiethly, for pithiness of proverbs, oracles, and sentences, no Language can paralel with it.

130. Sixtiethly, in Axioms, Maximes, and Aphorisms, it is excellent above all other Languages.

131. One and sixtiethly, for definitions, divisions, and distinctions, no Language is so apt.

132. Two and sixtiethly, for the affirmation, negation, and infinitation of propositions, it hath proprieties unknown to any other Language, most necessary for knowledge.

133. Three and sixtiethly, in matters of Enthymems, Syllogisms, and all manner of Illative ratiocination, it is the most compendious in the world.

134. Sixtie fourthly, Negative expressions are more compendiously uttered in this Language, then in any other in the world.

135. Sixtie fifthly, The infinitant terms by this tongue are in one single word expressed, which succinctness is by no other Language afforded.

136. Lastly, There is not any phrase whatsoever, which, for being peculiar to one Speech, and consequently in all other to be improperly taken (wherewith each known tongue in the world is most variously stored) hath, when translated from its original idiome, the denomination of Græcism, Latinism, Scotism, anglicism, and so forth ; but in this universal Language is so well admitted, that, in losing nothing of its genuine livelines, it beareth along with it, without any diminution either of sense or expression, the same very emphasis in the stream, which it had at the spring, the like whereof is in no other Language to be found.

137. Besides these sixty and six advantages above all other Languages, I might have couched thrice as many more, of no less consideration then the aforesaid, but that these same will suffice to sharpen the longing of the generous Reader, after the intrinsecal and most researched secrets of the new Grammer and Lexicon which I am to evulge.


* See B. 2. art. 53. 54. 56. 57. 58.

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