Philemon Holland, translator (1601): C. Plinius Secundus The Historie of the World. Book VI. (Pages 114-151)
THE SIXTH BOOKE OF
THE HISTORIE OF NATVRE,
WRITTEN BY C. PLINIVS
HE Sea called Pontus Euxinus, and named by the Greeks in old time Axenos,1 for the hard usage that passengers found at the hands of those savage nations upon the coasts therof, is spred also between Europe & Asia, upon a very spite and speciall envie of Nature, as it should seeme, unto the Earth, and a wilfull desire to maintaine still the Sea in his greatnesse, and to fulfill his greedie and endles appetite. For contented she was not to have environed the whole earth with the maine Ocean, yea and taken from it a great part thereof, with exceeding rage overflowing the same, and laying all emptie and naked: it sufficed not, I say, to have broken through the mountaines, and so to rush in, and after the sea had dismembred * Caspe from Affricke, to have swallowed up much more by farre than is left behind to be seene: no nor to have let Propontis gush through Hellespont, and so to encroach againe upon the earth and gaine more ground: unlesse from the streights of Bosphorus also he enlarge himselfe into another huge and vast sea, and yet is never content, untill the lake Moeotis also with his streight, meet with him as he thus spreadeth abroad and floweth at libertie, and so joyne together and part as it were, their stolne good betweene them. And verily that all this is happened maugre the earth, and that it made all resistance that it could, appeareth evidently by so many streights and narrow passages lying between these two elements of so contrarie nature (considering that in Hellespont the space is not above 875 paces from land to land: and at the two Bosphori the sea is so passeable, that oxen or kine may swim at ease from the one side to the other: and hereupon they both took their name:) the which vicinitie serveth very well to entertaine and nourish amitie among nations, separated by nature one from another: and in this disunion as it were, appeareth yet a brotherly fellowship and unitie. For the cocks may be heard to crow, and the dogges to barke, from the one side to the other: yea and men out of these two worlds may parly one to another with audible voice, and have commerce of speech togither, if the weather be calme, and that the winds doe not carrie away the sound thereof.
Well, the measure some have taken of the sea, from Bosphorus Thracius unto the lake of Moeotis, and have accounted it to be 1438 miles and a halfe. But Eratosthenes reckoneth it lesse by one hundred. Agrippa saith, that from Chalcedon to Phasis, it is a thousand miles, and so to Bosphorous Cimmerius 360 miles. As for us, wee will set downe summarily and in general, the distances of places, according to the moderne knowledge of our nation in these daies, for as much as our armies have warred in the verie streight and mouth of this Cimmerian streight.
Being passed then from the streight of Bosphorus Thracius, we meet with the river Rhebas, which some have called Rhoesus:2 and beyond it, Psillis3 another river: then, come we to the port of Calpas, and Sangarius one of the principall rivers of Asia: it ariseth in Phrygia: it receiveth other huge rivers into it, and among the rest Tembrogius and Gallus. The same Sangarius, was called also Coralius. After this river, begin the gulfes Mariandini, upon which is to be seene the towne Heraclea, situate upon the river Lycus. It is from the mouth of Pontus 200 miles. Beyond it is the port Acone, cursed for the venemous hearb and poisonous Aconitum, which taketh name thereof. Also the hole or cave Acherusia.4 Rivers also there be, Pedopiles,5 Callichorum, and Sonantes.6 One towne, Tium, eight and thirtie miles from Heraclea: and last of all, the River Bilis.7
The nation of the Paphlagonians, and Cappadocians.
Beyond this river Bilis, is the countrey Paphlagonia, which some have named Pylæmerina,8 and it is enclosed with Galatia behind it. The first towne yee meet in it, is Mastya, built by the Milesians: and next to it, is Cromna. In this quarter the Heneti inhabite, as Cornelius Nepos saith. Moreover, from thence the Venetians in Italie, who beare their name, are descended, as he would have us beleeve. Neere to the said towne Cromna, is another called Sesamum in times past, and now Amastris. Also the mountaine Cytorus, 64 miles from Tium. When you are gone past this mountaine, you shall come to Cimolus and Stephane, two townes, and likewise to the river Parthenius: and so forward to the cape or promontorie Corambis, which reacheth forth a mightie way into the sea: and it is from the mouth of the sea Pontus 315 miles,9 or as others rather thinke, 350. As farre also it is from the streight Cimmerius, or as some would have it, 312 miles and an halfe. A towne there was also in times past of that name: and another likewise beyond it called Arminum: but now, there is to be seene the colonie Sinope, 164 miles from Citorum. Being past it, you fall upon the river Varetum, the people of Cappadocia, the townes Gazima, and Gazelum,10 and the river Halyto,11 which issuing out of the foot of the hill Taurus, passeth through Cataonia and Cappadocia. Then meet you with these townes following, Gangre, Carissa, and the free citie Amisum, which is from Sinope 130 miles. As you travell farther, you shall see a gulfe carrying the name of the said towne, where the sea runneth so far within the land, that it seemeth to make Asia well-neere an Iland: for from thence to the gulfe Issicus in Cilicia, is not above 200 miles through the continent. In all which tract, there be no more than three nations which justly and by good right, may be called Greekes, to wit, the Dorians, Ionians, and Ææolians: for all the rest are reputed barbarous. Unto Amisum, there joyned the towne Eupatoria, founded by K. Mithridates:12 and after that he was vanquished, both together tooke the name of Pompeiopolis.
In Cappadocia, there is a cittie well within the land, called Archelais, situate upon the river Halys: which Claudius Cæsar the Emperor erected as a colonie, and peopled it with Romane souldiers. There is besides a towne which the river Sarus runneth under: also Neo-cæsarea, which Lycus passeth by: and Amasia, with the river Iris running under it, within the country Gazacena. Moreover, in this quarter called Colopena, there stand Sebastia and Sebastopolis, little townes indeed, howbeit comparable with those abovesaid. In the other part of Cappadocia, there is the cittie Melita, built by queene Semiramis, not far from Euphrates: also, Dio-Cæsarea, Tyana, Castabala, Magnopolis, Zela: and under the mountaine Argæus, Mazaca, which now is named Cæsarea. That part of Cappadocia which lieth before Armenia the greater, is called Melitene: that which bordereth upon Comagene, Cataonia: upon Phrygia, Garsauritis: upon Sargaurasana, Cammaneum:13 and finally upon Galatia, Morimene. And there the river Cappadox seperateth the one from the other. Of this river the Cappadocians took name, wheras beforetime they were called Leucosyri. As for the lesse Armenia, the river Lycus devideth it from Neo-Cæsarea beforesaid. Within the countrey there runneth also the greater river Ceraunus. But on the coast side, when you are past the cittie Amysum, you meet with the towne Lycastum, and the river Chadisia: and once past them, you enter into the countrey Themiscyra. In this quarter also you may see the river Iris, bringing down with it another river Lycus that runneth into it. And in the midland parts there is the citie Ziela, ennobled for the overthrow of Triarius, whom C. Cæsar defeated with his whole armie.14 But in the coast againe you shall encounter the river Thermodon, which issueth from before a castle named Phanaroea, and passeth beside the foot of the mountain Amazonius. In which place there stood sometime a towne of that name, and other five, namely, Phamizonium, Themiscyra, Sotira, Amasia, Comana, at this present called Manteium.15
The people of the region Themiscyrene.
Moreover, in Pontus ye have the nations of the Genetæ and the Chalybes, together with a towne of Cotyi. People besides called Tibareni, and Mossyni, who brand and marke their bodie with hote searing yrons.16 Also the nation of the Macrocephali, with the town Cerasus, and the port Cordulææ. Beyond which you come to a people named Bechires, and Buzeri, and to the river Melas. And so forward to the quarter of the Macrones, Sideni, and so to the river Sydenum, upon which is situate the towne Polemonium, distant from Amisum 220 myles:17 where yee shall find the rivers Iasonius and Melanthius: and a towne 80 miles from Amisum, called Pharnacea: the castle and river of Tripolis. Item, Philocalia and Liviopolis without a river: and lastly the imperiall and free cittie Trapezus, environned with an high mountaine, 100 miles from Pharnacea. And being past Trapezus, you enter into the countrey of the Armenochalybes, and Armenia the greater: which are 30 myles asunder. But upon the coast you shall see the river Pyxites that runneth ever before Trapezus: and beyond it the countrey of the Sanni Heniochi. Moreover, the river Absarus, in the mouth whereof there is a castle likewise so named, from Trapezus 150 miles.18 Behind the mountains of that quarter, you meet with the region Iberia: but in the coast thereof of the Heniochi, Apreutææ and Lazi. The rivers Campseonysis, Nogrus, Bathys. When yee are once past them, you come into the countrey of the Colchians, where standeth the towne Matium, with the river Heracleum passing under it, and a Promontorie of that name, and last of all, the most renowned river of all Pontus, called Phasis. This river riseth from out of the Moschian mountaines, and for 38 miles and a halfe, is navigale, and beareth any great vessels whatsoever. And then for a great way it carrieth smaller bottomes, and hath over it 120 bridges. Beautified it was sometimes with many faire townes upon the bankes thereof on both sides, and the principall of them all, were Tyritaum,19 Cygnus, and the cittie Phasis situate in the very mouth thereof, as it falleth into the sea. But the goodliest cittie planted upon this river, and most famous of all the rest was Ææa, fifteene myles distant from the sea: where Hippos and Cyanos,20 two mightie great rivers, comming from divers parts, enter both into the river Phasis. But now there is no count made of any but of Surium onely, which taketh name of the river Surium which runneth to it. And thus farre wee said that Phasis was capable of great ships. Among other rivers which it receiveth, for number and greatnesse admirable, is the river Glaucus. In the fosse and mouth of this river Phasis, where hee is discharged into the sea, there bee some little Islands of no reckoning. And there, from Bsarus it is 75 miles.21 Being past Phasis, you meet with another river called Charien: upon which bordereth the nation of the Salææ, named in old time Phthirophagi22 and Suani, where you shall meet with the river Cobus, which issueth out of Caucasus, and runneth through the countrey of the Suani abovesaid. Then you come to another river Rhoas, and so forward to the region Ecrectice: to the rivers Sigania, Tersos, Atelpos, Chrysorrhoas, and the people Absilææ: the castle Sebastopolis, a hundred miles from Phasis, the nation of the Sanigores, the towne Cygnus, the river and towne both called Pityus. And last of all wee arrive upon the countrey of the Heniochææ, where be nations entituled with many and sundrie names.
The region of Colchis, the Achææi, and other nations in that tract.
Next followeth the region of Colchis, which is likewise in Pontus: wherein the mountaine[s] Caucasus wind & turn toward the Rhiphææan hils, as hath been said before,23 and that mountaine of the one side bendeth downe toward Euxinus, Pontus, and Mæotis; and of the other, enclineth to the Caspian and Hircane seas. When ye are descended to the maritime coasts, yee shall find many barbarous and savage nations there inhabiting, to wit, the Melanchlææni, and the Choruxi, where sometimes stood Dioscurias a cittie of the Colchians, neere unto the river Anthemus, which now lieth wast and dispeopled, notwithstanding it was so renowmed in times past, that by the report of Timosthenes, there repaired thither and inhabited therein 300 nations of diverse languages. And even afterwards our Romanes were forced to provide themselves of 130 interpreters, when they would negotiate and trafficke with the people in and about Dioscurias. Some there be that thinke how it was first founded by Amphitus and Telchius, who had the charge of the chariots of Castor and Pollux: for certain it is, that the fierce and wild nation of the Heniochi, are from them descended. Being passed Dioscurias, you come up the towne Heraclium, which from Sebastopolis is 8024 miles distant: and so forward to the Achæi, Mardi, and Cercetæ: and after them to the Serri, and Cephalotomi. Far within that tract stood the most rich and wealthie towne Pitius, which by the Heniochians was ransacked and spoiled. On the back part thereof inhabite the Epagerites [a nation of the Sarmatians] even upon the mountaine Caucasus: and on the other side of that hill, the Sauromatæ (the countrey is at this day called Tartaria the great.25) Hither retired and fled king Mithridates in the time of Claudius Cæsar the Emperor: who made report, that the Thali dwell thereby, and confine Eastward upon the very opening of the Caspian sea: which by his report remaineth drie, whensoever the sea doth ebbe. 26 But now to returne to the coast neere unto the Cercetæ, you meet with the river Icarusa, with a towne and river called Hierum, 136 miles from Heracleum. Then come yee to the cape Cronea, in the very ridge and high pitch whereof the Toretæ inhabite. But beneath it you may see the cittie Sindica, 67 miles situate from Hierum: and last of all, you arrive upon the river Sceaceriges.27
Mæotis, and the streights thereof called Bosphorus Cimmerius.
From the said river to the very entrance of the Cimmerian Bosphorus are counted 88 miles28 But the length of the very demie Island, which extendeth and stretcheth out between Pontus and Mæotis, is not above 87 miles and a halfe, and the breadth in no place lesse than two acres of land. This the paisants of that countrey doe call Eione. The very coasts of this streight Bosphorus, both of Asia side and Europa, boweth and windeth like a curb to Moeotis. As touching the townes here planted, in the very first entrie thereof standeth Hermonassa, and then Cepi, founded by the Milesians. Being past Cepi, you come soone after to Stratilia, Phanagoria, and Apaturos, in manner unpeopled and void: and last of all, in the verie utmost point of the mouth where it falleth into the sea, you arrive at the towne Cimmerius, named beforetime Cerberian.
Nations about Moeotis.
Being passed Cimmerium, you come to the very broad lake Moeotis, whereof we spake before in the Geographie of Europe.29 Upon the coast whereof, beyond Cimmerium on the side of Asia, inhabite the Mæotici,30 Vati, Serbi, Archi, Zingi, and Psesij. After this, you come to the great river Tanais, which runneth into Moeotis with two armes or branches: and on the sides of it dwell the Sarmatians, an offspring descended in old time (as men say) from the Medians: but so multiplyed now, that they themselves are divided and dispearsed into many nations. And first of are the Sauromatæ, surnamed Gynaecocratumeni, i. (as one would say) subject to women: from whence the Amazons are provided and furnished of men to serve their turne in stead of husbands.31 Next to them, are the Euazæ, Cottæ, Cicimeni, Messeniani, Costobocci, Choatræ, Zigæ, Dandari, Thussageræ, and Turcæ,32 even as farre as the wilderneses, forrests, chases, and rough valleys. But beyond them are the Arnuphæi, who confine upon the mountaine Rhiphæi. As for the river Tanais, the Scithians call it Silys: and Moeotis, they name Temerinda, that is to say, the mother of the sea, or rather, the seas end.33 In auncient time there stood a great town upon the very mouth of Tanais, where it falleth into the sea.34 As for the neighbour borders of this sea, inhabited they were sometime by the Lares:35 afterwards, by the Clazomenij and Moeones; and in processe of time, by the Panticapenses. Some Authours write, that about Moeotis toward the higher mountaines Ceraunij, these nations following doe inhabite, to wit, first upon the very coast and sea side, the Napææ:36 and above them, the Essedones, joyning upon the Colchi, and the high mountaine [Corax.]37 After them, the Carmaces, the Oranes, Anticæ, Mazacæ, Ascantici, Acapeates, Agagammatæ, Phycari, Rhimosoli, and Ascomarci.38 Moreover, upon the hill Caucasus, the Icatales, Imaduches, Ranes, Anclaks, Tydians, Charastasci, and Ascuiandes. Moreover, along the river Lagous, issuing out of the mountains Cathei, and into which Opharus runneth, these nations ensuing doe dwell, to wit, the Caucadians,39 and the Opharites: beyond whome, runneth the rivers Menotharus, and Immitues, out of the mountaines Cissij, which passeth through the Agedi, Carnapes, Gardei, Accisi, Gabri, and Gregari: and about the source or spring of this river Imitues, the people Imitui and Apartheni.40 Others say, that the Suites,41 Auchetes, Satarnei, and Asampates, invaded and conquered these parts; and that the Tanaites and Nepheonites, were by them put to the edge of the sword, and not one person of them spared. Some write, that the river Opharius42 runneth through the Canteci, and the Sapæi: and that the river Tanais traversed sometime through the Phatareans, Herticei, Spondolici, Synthietæ, Amassi, Issi, Catareti, Tagori, Catoni, Neripi, Agandei, Mandarei, Saturchei, and Spalei.
Hitherto have we treated and gone through the nations and inhabitants of the coasts upon the Mediterranean sea. Now are wee to speake of the people inhabiting in the verie midland parts of the maine within: wherein I protest, and denie not, but that I will deliver many things otherwise than the auncient Geographers have set downe: forasmuch as I have made diligent search into the state of those regions, as well by enquirie of Domitius Corbulo (who lately went with an armie through those quarters43) as of divers kings and princes, who made repaire to Rome with suites and supplications, but especially of those kings sonnes that were left as hostages in Rome. And first to begin with the nation of the Cappadocians. This is a country that of all others which bound upon Pontus, reacheth farthest within the firme land: for on the left hand it passeth by both Armenias, the greater and the lesse, and Comagene: and on the right, all those nations in Asia before-named: confining many others: and still prevailing with great might, growing on and climing Eastward up to the mountaine Taurus, it passeth beyond Lycaonia, Pisidia, and Cilicia: and with that quarter which is called Cataonia, pierceth above the tract of Antiochia, and reacheth as far as to the region Cyrrhestica, which lyeth well within that countrey. And therefore the length of Asia there, may contain 1250 miles, and the breadth 640.
Armenia the greater and the lesse.
The greater Armenia, beginning at the mountaines Pariedri, is divided from Cappadocia by the river Euphrates, as hath been said before:44 and where the river Euphrates beginneth to turne his course from Mesopotamia, by the river Tigris as renowmed as the other. Both these rivers it is furnished withall, which is the cause that it taketh the name of Mesopotamia, as being situate between them both. The maine land which lyeth betweene, is possessed by the mountaines of Arabia called Orei:45 howbeit, it extendeth untill it confine upon Adiabene. Being past it once, it is hemmed in with mountaines that encounter it overthwart, which cause it to enlarge it selfe into a breadth on the left hand, as far as to the river Cyrus: and then it turneth ever crosse, untill it meet with the river Araxes: but it carrieth his length into the lesser Armenia, confining still upon the river Absarus, which falleth into the Ponticke sea: and the mountaines Pariedri (from which the said river issueth) which divide it from the lesse Armenia. As for the river Cyrus, it springeth in the mountaines Heniochij, which some have called Coraxici. But Araxes issueth out of the same mountaine from whence Euphrates commeth, and there is not above sixe miles space betweene them both. This river Araxes is augmented with the river Musis;46 and then himselfe looseth also his name, and as most have thought, is carried by the river Cyrus into the Caspian sea. As for the townes of name in the lesse Armenia, they be these, Cæsarea, Asia,47 and Nicopolis. In the greater, yee have Arsamole,48 fast upon the river Euphrates; likewise Carcathiocerta, situate upon Tigris. In the higher countrey, is the citie Tigranocerta,49 built in the plaine beneath, near unto Araxes, Artaxara. Aufidius saith, that both the Armeniæ containe in all 500 miles. Claudius Cæsar reporteth, that in length from Dascusa, to the confines of the Caspian sea, it taketh 1300 miles, and in breadth halfe so much, to wit from Tigranocerta to Iberia. This is well knowne, that divided it is into certaine regiments, which they call Strategians; and yet some of them in old time, were as large each of them as realmes and kingdomes: and to the number they were of 120, but such barbarous names they had, that they cannot well be set downe in writing.50 Enclosed it is Eastward with the mountaines, but neither the hills Ceraunij, nor yet the region Adiabene, doe presently and immediatly confine thereupon: for the countrey of the Sopheni lyeth betweene: then you come to the mountaines aforesaid; and being past them, you enter into the countrey of the Adiabenes. But on that coast where the plaines lye and the flat valleys, the next neighbours to Armenia be the Menobardi and Moscheni. As for Adiabene, environed it is partly with the river Tigris, and partly compassed with unaccessible steepe mountaines. On the left hand, it confineth upon the Medians, and hath a prospect to the Caspian sea, the which commeth out of the Ocean (as we shall shew in meet and convenient place51) and is enclosed wholly within the mountaines of Caucasus. As for the nations there inhabiting along the marches and confines of Armenia, now will we speake of them.
Albania, and Iberia.
All the plaine countrey betweene Armenia and the river Cyrus, the Albanois of Asia do inhabite. Being past it, you enter anon into the Iberians region, who are separated from the Albanois afore-said by the river Alazon, which runneth downe from the Caucasian hills into Cyrus. The towns of importance, in Albania, is Cabalaca; in Iberia, Harmastis, neere to the river Neoris: beyond which, is the region Thasie, and Triare, as farre as to the mountaines Partedori.52 And when you are past them, you enter into the deserts of Cholchis: and on the side of them which lyeth toward the Ceraunij, the Armenochalybes do inhabite: and so foward you come into the tract and marches of the Moschi, which extend to the river Iberus, that runneth into Cyrus. Beneath them, inhabite the Sacassani, and beyond them the Macroniens, who reach even to the river Absarus. Thus you see how the plaines and the hanging of the hills in these parts, are inhabited. Againe, from the marches and frontiers of Albania, all the forefront of the hills is taken up and possessed by the savage people of the Sylvi; and beneath them, of the Lubienes, and so forward by the Didurians, and Sodij.
The gates and paßages of the mountaine Caucasus.
When ye are beyond the Sodij, you come to the streights of the hill Caucasus, which many have erroniously called Caspiæ Portæ. And certes, Nature hath perfourmed a mightie peece of worke, in cleaving asunder at one instant those mountaines, where the gates were barred up as it were with iron portculleises, whiles under the mids thereof, the river Dyriodorus runneth: and on this side of it, standeth a strong fort and castle called Cumania, situate upon a rock, able to impeach an armie never so puissant and innumerable that would passe thereby; in such sort as in this place by meanes of these bar-gates, one part of the world is excluded from the other: and namely most of all they seeme to be set opposite as a rampart against Harmastis a towne of Iberia. But being passed these said gates, you come to the mountaines Gordyei, where the Valli and Suarni, barbarous and savage nations, are imployed onely in the mines of gold.53 Beyond them as farre as to the Ponticke sea, you enter into the countrey of the Heniochi, whereof be many sorts: and soone after, to the Achei. And thus much as touching this tract of the sea Ponticke, and of the most renowmed gulfes of all. Some have set downe in writing, that betweene Pontus and the Caspian sea, it is not above 375 miles. Cornelius Nepos saith it is but 150. See into what great streights between both seas Asia is driven again, and as it were thronged. Claudius Cæsar hath reported, that from Cimmerius Bosphorus unto the Caspian sea, it is 150 miles, and that Seleucus Nicator purposed if he had lived, to cut the land through from the one side to the other: but in this purpose of his, himselfe was cut short and slaine by Ptolomæus Ceraunus. To conclude, it is in manner held for certein, that from those gates of Caucasus unto the Ponticke sea, it is 200 miles and no lesse.
The Islands in the Ponticke sea.
In the Ponticke sea, lyeth the Islands Planctæ, otherwise Cyaneæ or Symplegades. Then Apollonia, named also Thynnias, for distinction sake from that other so named in Europe: it is from the continent one mile, and is in circuit three. Iust over-against Pharnacea, is the Isle Chalceritis, which the Greekes called Aria, consecrated as it were to Mars; wherein they say the foules that are used to fight and flutter with their wings against all other birds that come thither.
The regions and people confining upon the Scythian Ocean.
HAVING thus sufficiently discoursed of all the countries within the firme land of Asia, let us now determine to pass over the Rhiphæan hilles, and discover the coasts of the Ocean which lye on the right hand of those hills. Wherein we have to consider, that Asia is dashed and beaten upon by this maine sea on three parts: to wit, on the North side, and there it is called Scythicus: on the East, where they call it Eous: and last from the South, and there they name it Indicus. And according to the sundrie gulfes and creekes that it maketh, and the inhabitants by whome it passeth, many names it taketh. Howbeit, a great part of Asia toward the North, lyeth desert, and hath in it much wildernesse inhabitable,54 by reason of the extreme cold of that frozen climate, so subject to the Pole Arcticke. But being once past the utmost quarter of the North point, and came to the Northeast where the sunne ariseth at midsommer, then you come to the Scythians. Beyond whome, and the very point of the North pole and the wind from thence, some have placed the Hyperborei; of whome we have spoken at large in the treatise of Europe.55 On this side of the Hyperborei, the first cape or promontorie that you meet withall in the countrey Celtica, is named Lytarmis: and then you come into the river Carambucis, where, by the forcible influence of the starres, the high mountaines Rhiphæa, as being wearied, begin to settle and abase themselves lower. At the fall and descent of which mountaines, I have heard say, that certaine people named Arnupheæ56 inhabited: a nation not much unlike in their manner of life to the Hyperboreans. They have their habitations in forrests: their feeding is upon berries of trees: shorne they be all and shaven, for both women and men count it a shame to have haire on their heads: otherwise they are civile enough in their conversation and behavior: and therefore, by report, they are held for a sacred people and inviolable, in so much as those cruell nations and inhumane that border upon them, will offer them no abuse; neither do they respect them onely, but also in regard and honour of them, they forbeare those also that flie unto them as to a place of franchise and priviledge. Goe beyond them once, you come among the ** Scythians indeed, the Cimmerij, Cicianthi,57 Georgi, and the nation of the Amazons, and these confront the Caspian or Hircan sea: for it breaketh forth of the deep Scithian Ocean, toward the back parts of Asia, and taketh divers names of the inhabitants coasting upon it, but especially above all other of the Caspians and Hircaneans. Clitarchus is of this opinion, that this sea is full as great and large as Pontus Euxinus. And Eratosthenes setteth down the very measure and pourprise thereof: namely, from East to South along the coast of Cadusia and Albania, 5400 stadia: from thence by the Aratiaticks, Amarbi, and Hircanij, to the mouth of the river Zoum, 4800 stadia: from it to the mouth of Iaxartes where it falleth into the sea, 2400 stadia: which beeing put together amount in all to 1575 miles. Artemidorus counteth lesse by 25 miles. Agrippa in bounding out and limiting the circuit of the Caspian sea, and the regions coasting upon it, togither with them Armenia both the greater and the lesse, namely Eastward with the Ocean of the Seres, Westward with the mountains of Caucasus, on the South side with the hill Taurus, and finally on the North with the Scithian Ocean, hath written, That the whole precinct and compasse of these parts may contain in length [so far as is known and discovered of those countries] 590 miles, and 290 in breadth. Yet for all this, there want not others who say, That the whole circuit of that sea, and begin at the very mouth and firth thereof, ariseth to 2500 miles. As for this mouth aforesaid where it breaketh into the sea, it is very narrow, but exceeding long: howbeit when it beginneth once to enlarge it selfe and grow wide, it turneth and fetcheth a compasse with horned points like to a quarter moon, and after the manner of a Scithian bow, as M. Varro saith, it windeth along from his mouth toward the lake Moeotis. The first gulfe that it maketh, is called Scythicus; for the Scithians inhabit both sides, and by the meanes of the narrow streight between, have commerce and trafficke one with another: for of the one side are the Nomades and Sauromatæ, comprising under them many other nations of sundry names: and on the other, the Abzoæ, who have no fewer states under them. At the very entry of this sea on the right hand, the Udines, a people of the Scithians, dwell upon the very point of this mouth: and then along the coast, the Albanois, a nation descended (as men say) from Iason; where the sea lying before them is called Albanum. This nation is spread also upon the mountaines of Caucasus, and so along downe the hils as far as to the river Cyrus, which confineth the marches betweene Armenia and Iberia, as hath been said. Above the maritime coasts of Albania and Udines country, the Sarmatians, called Utidorsi, and Aroteres, are planted: and behind them, the Amazons, whome we have alreadie shewed; who also are women Sauromatians. The rivers of Albanie which fall into the sea, are Cassios and Albanos: and then Cambises, which hath his head in the Caucasian mountains: and soon after Cyrus, which ariseth out of the hils Corax, as before is said. Moreover Agrippa writeth, that this whole coast of Albanie (fortified with those high and inaccessible mountains of Caucasus) containeth 425 miles. Now when you are past the river Cyrus, the Caspian sea beginneth to take that name, for that the Caspians do inhabite the coast thereof. And here the error of many is to be laid upon and corrected, even of those also who were in the last voyage with Corbulo in Armenia with the Romane armie: for they tooke it, that those gates of Caucasus whereof wee spake before, were the Caspian gates, and so called them: and the verie mappes and descriptions which are painted and sent from thence, beare that name and title. Likewise the menacing commaundements, and threatning commissions sent out by Nero the Emperour58 for to gaine and conquer those gates, which through Iberia lead into Sarmatia, made mention of the gates Caspiæ there, which had in a manner no passage at all to the Caspian sea, by reason that the mountaine Caucasus empeached it. Howbeit in very truth, there be other gates so called, which joyn upon the Caspian nations, which we had never known from the other, but by relation of those that accompanied Alexander the Great in his voyage and expedition to those parts. For the realme and kingdome of the Persians, which at this day wee take that the Parthians hold, lyeth aloft betweene the Persian and Hircane seas upon the mountaines of Caucasus, in the very hanging and descent thereof, on both sides confining upon Armenia the greater: and on that part which lyeth to Comagene, confronteth and joyneth (as we have said) upon Sepheniæ: and upon it againe bordereth Adiabene, where the realme of the Assyrians doth begin: whereof Arbelitis, which boundeth next upon Syria, taketh up a good part: which is the country wherein Alexander the Great discomfited and vanquished Darius. All this tract, the Macedonians who entred with Alexander, surnamed Mygdonia, for the resemblance of that in Greece from which they came.59 Townes of name there be in it, Alexandria, and Antiochia, which they call Nisibis: and from Artaxata it is 750 miles. There was also another cittie called Ninus or Ninive,60 seated upon the river Tygris, which regarded the West, which in times past was highly renowmed. But on the other side, where it lieth toward the Caspian sea, lyeth the region Atropatene, separated by the river Araxes, from Orene in Armenia: wherin is the citie Gazæ, 450 miles from Artaxata: and as many from Ecbatana in Media, wheron some part the Atropatenes doe hold.
Media, and the gates Caspiæ.
As for Ecbatana the head citie of Media, Seleucus the king founded it: and it is from Seleucia the great 750 miles: and from the Caspian gates 20. The other great townes of importance in Media, be Phausia, Agamzua, and Apamia, named also Rhaphane.61 And as for the streights there, called the Caspian gates, the same reason is there of that name, as of the other by Caucasus; by reason that the mountaine is cloven and broken through, and hath so narrow a lane, that hardly a waine or cart is able to passe by it, and that for the length of 8 miles: all done by the picke-axe and mans hand. The rockes and cliffes that hang over on the one side and the other, be like as if they were scortched and halfe-burnt: so dry and thirstie is all that tract, and without fresh water for 38 miles space:62 for all the liquor and moisture issuing out of those craggie rockes, runneth through it, which letteth the passage and causeth folke to avoid that way. Besides, such a number of serpents doe there haunt, that no man dare passe that way but in winter onely.
Nations about the Hircane sea.
Unto Adiabene, joyneth the countrey of the Carduchi, so called in times past, and now Cordueni, by which the river Tigris runneth: and upon them the Pratitæ doe confine, called also Paredoni,63 who keepe the hold of the Caspian gates aforesaid. On the other side of whome, you shall meet with the deserts of Parthia, and the mountaine Cithenus: but being passed that once, you come streight into the most pleasant and beautifull tract of the same Parthia, called Choara: and there, stand two citties of the Parthians, built sometimes as forts opposite against the Medians: namely, Calliope and Issatis, situate in times past upon another rocke. As for the capitall cittie of all Parthia, Hecatompylos, it is from the Caspian gates abovesaid 133 miles. Thus you see how the kingdome of the Parthians also is limited and separated by these mountaines and streights. When a man is once gotten forth of these gates, presently he entreth upon the Caspians country, which reacheth as farre as to the sea side, and gave the name as well to it as to the gates afore-named. Howbeit all the region upon the left hand is ful of mountains: from whence backward to the river Cyrus, are by report 220 miles,64 but from that river if you would goe higher up to those gates, you shall find it 700 miles. And in very truth from this place began Alexander to make the account and reckoning of his journies, in that voyage of his to India, saying, that from those gates to the entance of India, it was 15680 stadia: from thence to the citie Bacha, which they call Zariaspa 3700, and so to the river Iaxartes 5 miles.
Others nations also.
From the Caspians countrey Eastward, lieth the region called Zapanortene,65 & in it the land Daricum,66 the most fertile tract of all those parts. Then come you to the Tapyrians, Anariaci, Stauri and Hircani, at whose coasts the same sea beginneth to take the name Hircanum, even from the river Syderis. About it are other rivers, to wit, Mazeras and Stratos, all issuing out of Caucasus. Out of the realme of Hircania, you enter into the countrey Margiana, so commendable for the warme Sunneshine weather there, and the onely place in all that quarter which yeeldeth vines. Environned it is on every side with goodly pleasant hils to the eie, for the compasse of 1500 stadia. Fortified it is besides, and affourdeth hard accesse unto it by reason of the sandie and barren desarts for the space of 120 myles. And situate it is even against the tract of Parthia, wherein Alexander the great sometime had built Alexandria, which being rased and destroied by the Barbarians, Antiochus the son of Seleucus reedified in the same place upon the river Margus, which runneth through it, together with another river Zocale, and it was called Syriana. Howbeit, he desired rather that it should be named Antiochia. This cittie containeth in circuit 70 stadia: and into it, Orodes after that hee had defeated Crassus and his hoast, brought all the Romanes whom he had taken prisoners.67 Being past the high country Margiana, you come to the region of the Mardi, a fierce & savage people, subject unto none, they inhabit the mountaine Caucasus, and reach as farre as to the Bactrians. Beyond that tract are these nations, the Ochanes, Chomares, Berdrigei, Hermatotrophi, Bomarci, Commani, Marucæi, Mandrueni, and Iatij. The rivers also, Mandrus and Gridinus. Beyond inhabite the Chorasmij, Gandari, Attasini, Paricani, Sarangæ, Parrasini, Maratiani, Nasotiani, Aorsi, Gelæ, whom the Greekes called Cadusij, and the Matiani.68 Moreover, in it stood the great towne Heraclea, built by Alexander the great, which afterwards was subverted and overthrowne: but when it was repaired againe by Antiochus, he named it Achaias.69 Beneath in the countrey, the Derbines do inhabite, through whose marches in the very middest, runneth the river Oxus, which hath his beginning out of a lake called Oxus. Beyond them are the Syrmatæ, Oxij, Tagæ, Heniochi, Bateni, Saraparæ, and Bactrians, with their towne Zariaspe, called afterwards Bactrum, of the river Bactra. This nation inhabiteth the backe parts of the hill Paropamisus, overagainst the source and spring of the river Indus, and is environned with the river Ochus. Beyond the Bactrianes are the Sogdianes, and Panda the principall cittie of that countrey. In the very utmost marches of their territorie standeth the towne Alexandria built by Alexander the great, wherein are to bee seene the Altars and Columnes, erected by Hercules, prince Bacchus, Cyrus, Semiramis, and Alexander:70 supposed and taken to be the very end of all their voiages in that part of the world, resting within the river Iaxartes, which the Scythians call Silys. For Alexander and his souldiours thought it had beene Tanais. Howbeit, captaine Demonax,71 who served under the kings Seleucus and Antiochus, passed over that river with an armie, and at the end of the voiage set up altars unto Apollo Didymæus. And this Demonax wee follow, especially n this description and Geographie of ours.
The Scynthian nation.
Beyond the realme Sogdiana, inhabit the nations of the Scythians. The Persians were wont to call them in generall Sacas, of a people adjoining them, so named. In old time they were known by the name of Arameans. And on the other side, the Scythians for their part use to tearme the Persians, Chorsari: and the hill Caucasus, they called Graucasus, that is to say, white with snow. The principall nations of Scythia, bee the Saræ, Massagetæ, Dahæ, Essedones, Ariacæ, Rhymnici, Pesici, Amordi, Histi, Edones, Camæ, Camacæ, Euchatæ, Cotieri, Antariani, Pialæ, Arimaspi beforetime called Cacidiri,72 Asæi and Oetei. As for the Napæans & Apellæans who sometime dwelt there, they be utterly extinct and gone.73 The rivers there of name bee Mandagræus and Caspasius. And surely there is not a region wherein Geographers doe varie and disagree more than in this: and as I take it, this commeth of the infinite number of those nations, wandering to and fro, and abiding never in one place. Alexander the great and M. Varro make report, that the water of the Scythian sea is fresh in tast, and potable. And in truth Pompey the great had such water brought unto him from thence to drinke, when he waged warre thereby against Mithridates: by reason no doubt of the great rivers that fall into it, which overcome the saltnesse of the water. Varro saith moreover, That during this expedition and journie of Pompeius, it was for certaine knowne, that it is but seven daies journey from out of India to the Bactrians countrey, even as farre as to the river Icarus74 which runneth into Oxus: and that the merchandise of India, transported by the Caspian sea, and so to the river Cyrus, may bee brought in five daies by land as farre as to Phasis in Pontus. Many Islands there lie all over that sea: but one above the rest, and most renowned, is Tazata: for thither all the shipping from out of the Caspian sea and the Scythian ocean, doe bend their course and there arrive:75 for that all the sea coasts doe affront the Levant, and turne into the East. The frontiers of Scythia from the first cape therof, is unhabitable by reason of the snow that lieth continually: neither are the next regions therto frequented and tilled, for the barbarous crueltie of those nations that border upon it: such as the Anthropophagi, who live of mans flesh, and haunt those parts. Hereupon it commeth, that you shall find nothing there but huge desart forrests, with a number of wild beasts, lying in wait for men as savage as themselves. When you are past this region, you enter againe among the Scythians, where you shall find likewise a wildernesse full of wild beasts, even as far as to the promontorie and mountaine called Tabis, which regardeth the sea. In such sort as one moietie in manner of that coast, all along which looketh toward the East, lieth wast, and is not inhabited. The first people of any knowledge and acquaintance, be the Seres, famous for the fine silke that their woods doe yeeld. They kembe from the leaves of their trees the hoarie downe thereof, and when it is steeped in water, they card and spin it, yea, and after their manner make thereof a sey or web, wherupon the dames here with us have a double labor both of undoing, and also of weaving againe this kind of yearne. See what adoe there is about it, what labour and toile it costeth, and how farre fet it is: and all for this, that our ladies and wives when they goe abroad in the street may cast a lustre from them, and shine againe in their silkes and velvets.76 As for the Seres, a mild and gentle kind of people they are by nature: howbeit, in this one point they resemble the bruit and wild beasts, for that they cannot away in the commerce with other nations, with the fellowship and societie of men, but shun and avoid their companie, notwithstanding they desire to trafficke with them. The first river known among them is Psitaras: the next to it, Carabi:77 the third Lanos: and then you come to a cape of that name. Beyond it is the gulfe Chryse, the river Attanos, and another bay or creeke called Attanos. By it lieth the region of the Attaci,78 a kind of people, secluded from all noisome wind and aire, keeping upon hils, exposed to the pleasant Sunne shine, where they enjoy the same temperature of aire, that the Hiperboreans live in. Of this countrey and people, Amonetus hath written a severall booke of purpose: like as Heratæus hath compiled such another treatise of the Hyperboreans. Beyond the Attaci or Attacores, the Thyrians and Tocharians79 do inhabit; yea, and the Casirians, who now by this time belong to the Indians, and are a part of them. But they within-forth that lie toward the Scythians, feed of mans flesh.80 As for the Nomades of India, they likewise wander to and fro, and keepe no resting place. Some write, that they confine upon the very Ciconians and Brysanians on the North side. But there (as all Geographers doe agree) the mountaines Emodi arise and shoot up: and there entereth the countrey of the East Indians, and extendeth not onely to that sea,81 but also to the Southerne, which wee have named the Indian sea. And this part of the Orientall Indians, which lieth directly streight forth, as farre as to that place where India beginneth to twine and bend toward the Indian sea, containeth 1875 miles. And all that tract which windeth and turneth along the South, taketh 2475 myles (as Eratosthenes hath collected and set downe) even unto the river Indus, which is the utmost limit of India Westward. But many other writers have set downe the whole length of India in this manner, namely, that it requireth 40 daies and nights sailing, with a good gale of a fore-wind: also, that from North to the South coast thereof, is 2750 myles.82 Howbeit, Agrippa hath put downe in writing that it is 3003 miles long, and 2003 broad.83 Posidonius took measure of it from the Northeast to the Southeast: and that by this means it is directly opposite unto Gaule, which hee likewise measured along the West coast, even from the Northwest point where the Sunne goeth downe at Midsummer, to the Southwest where it setteth in the middest of Winter. He addeth moreover and saith, That this West wind which from behind Gaule bloweth upon India, is very healthsome and holesome for that countrey, and this he proved by very good reason and demonstration. And verily the Indians have a farre different aspect of the skie from us. Other starres rise in their Hemisphære, which we see not. Two Summers they have in one yeere, and as many harvests: and their Winter between hath the Etesian winds blowing in our dogdaies, in steed of the Northren blasts with us. The winds are kind & mild with them: the sea alwaies navigable: the nations there dwelling, and the citties and towns there built, innumerable, if a man would take in hand to reckon them all. For India hath been discovered, not onely by Alexander the great his mightie and puissant armie, and by other kings his successours, (and namely Seleucus and Antiochus, & their Admirall Patrocles, who sailed about it even to the Hircane and Caspian seas:) but also by diverse other Greek Authors, who making abode, and sojourning with the kings of India (like as Megasthenes and Dionysius sent thither of purpose from Philadelphus) have made relation of the forces which those nations are able to raise and maintaine. And yet further diligence is to bee emploied still in this behalfe, considering they wrote of things there so diverse one from another, and incredible withall. They that accompanied Alexander the great in his Indian voiage, have testified in their writings, that in one quarter of India which hee conquered, there were of townes 500 in number, and not one lesse than the citie Cos: of severall nations nine.84 Also that India was a third part of the whole earth: and the same so well inhabited, that the people in it were innumerable. And this they delivered (beleeve me) not without good apparence of reason: for the Indians were in manner the onely men of all others that never went out of their owne countrey. Moreover, it is said, That from the time of Bacchus unto Alexander the great, there reigned over them successively 154 kings, for the space of 5402 yeeres betweene, and three moneths over.85 As for the rivers in that countrey, they be of a wonderfull bignesse. And reported it is, that Alexander sailed every day at the least 600 stadia upon the river Indus, and yet in lesse than five months and some few daies over, hee could not come to the end of that river: and lesse it is than Ganges by the confession of all men. Furthermore, Seneca a Latine writer, assaied to write certaine commentaries of India: wherein he hath made report of 60 rivers therein, and of nations, 120 lacking twaine. As great a labour it were to reckon up and number the mountaines that bee in it. As for the hils Imaus, Emmodius, Parapamisus, as parts all and members of Caucasus,86 butt one one upon another, and conjoine together. And being past them yee goe downe into a mightie large plaine countrey, like to Ægypt. It remaineth now to shew the continent and firme land of this great countrey, and for the more evident demonstration, let us follow the steps of Alexander the great, and his Historiographers. Diogneus, and Beton who set downe all the geasts & journies of that prince, have left in writing, That from the Caspian ports unto the citie Hecatompylos which is in Parthia, there are as many miles as we have set down alreadie.87 From thence to Alexandria in the Ariane countrey (which citie the same king founded) 562 myles:88 from whence to Prophthasia in the Dranganes land, 199 miles: and so forward to the capitoll towne of the Arachosians, 515 myles. From thence to Orthospanum, 250 myles: last of all, from it to the cittie of Alexandria in Opianum, 50 myles. In some copies these numbers are found to varie and differ.89 But to returne to this foresaid citie, situate it is at the very foot of Caucasus. From which to the river Chepta and Pencolaitis,90 a towne of the Indians, are counted 227 myles. From thence to the river Indus and the towne Tapila,91 60 myles: and so onward to the noble and famous river Hidaspes, 120 myles: from which to Hypasis, a river of no lesse account than the other 4900, or 3900.92 And there an end of Alexanders voiage. Howbeit, he passed over the river, and on the other side of the banke, hee erected certaine altars or pillers, and there dedicated them. The letters also of the king himselfe, sent backe into Greece, do carie the like certificate of his journies, and agree just herewith. The other parts of the countrie were discovered & surveied by Seleucus Nicator: namely from thence to Hesudrus 168 miles: to the river Ioames as much: and some copies adde 5 miles more therto: from thence to Ganges 112 miles: to Rhodapha 119, and some say, that between them two it is no lesse than 325 miles. From it to Calinipaxa, a great town 167 miles & an halfe, others say 265. And to93 the confluent of the rivers Iomanes and Ganges, where both meet together 225 miles, and many put thereto 13 miles more: from thence to the town Palibotta 425 miles: and so to the mouth of Ganges where he falleth into the sea 638 miles. As for the nations, which it paines me not to name, from the mountaines Emodi, & the principall cape of them, Imaus, which signifieth in that country language full of snow, they be these: the Isari, Cosyri, Izgi, & upon the very mountains, the Ghisiotosagi:94 also the Brachmanæ,95 a name common to many nations, among whom are the Maccocalingæ. Of rivers besides, there are Pinnas & Cainas, the later of which twain runneth into Ganges, & both are navigable. The people called Calingæ, coast hard uupon the sea. But the Mandei and Malli, among whom is the mountaine Mallus, are above them higher in the countrey. And to conclude, then you come to Ganges, the farthest bound and point of all that tract, India.
The river Ganges.
Many have beene of opinion, and so have written, that the spring of Ganges is uncertain, like as that also of Nilus: and that he swelleth, overfloweth, and watereth all the countries whereby he passeth, in the same sort that Nilus doth. Others again have said that it issueth out of the mountaines of Scythia: and how into it there run 19 other great rivers: of which over and above those beforenamed, certaine are navigable, namely, Canucha, Vama,96 Erranoboa, Cosaogus, and Sonus. There bee also that report, that Ganges presently ariseth to a great bignesse of his owne sources and springs, and so breaketh forth with great noise and violence, as running downe with a fall over craggie and stonie rockes: and when hee is once come into the flat plaines and even countrey, that he taketh up his lodging in a certaine lake: and then out of it carrieth a mild and gentle streame, 8 miles broad where it is narrowest: and 100 stadia over for the most part, but 160 where he is largest: but in no place under 20 paces deepe, [i. a 100 foot.]
The nation of India, beyond the river Nilus.97
When yee are over Ganges, the first region upon the coast that you set foot into, is that of the Gandaridæ and Calingæ, called Parthalis.98 The king of this countrey hath in ordinance for his warres 80000 foot,99 1000 horse, and 700 elephants, readie upon an houres warning to march. As for the other nations of the Indians that live in the champion plaine countries, there be diverse states of them, of more civilitie than the mountainers. Some applie themselves to tillage and husbandry: others set their minds upon martiall feats: one sort of them practise merchants trade, transporting their owne commodities into other countries, and bringing in forraine merchandise into their owne. As for the nobilitie and gentrie, those also that are the richest and mightiest among them, they manage the affaires of State and Commonweale, and sit in place of justice, or else follow the court, and sit in counsell with the king. A fift estate there is besides in great request, & namely of Philosophers and Religions, given wholly to the studie of wisdome and learning; and these make profession of voluntarie death: and verily, when they are disposed to die at any time, they make a great funeral fire, cast themselves into it, and so end their daies. Besides all these, one thing there is amongst them halfe brutish, and of exceeding toile & travell (and yet it is that which partly maintaineth all the other estates abovesaid) namely, the practise of hunting, chasing and taming Elephants. And in very truth, with them they plough their ground, upon them they ride up and downe: with these beasts are they best acquainted: they serve in the wars for the maintenance of their libertie, & defence of their frontiers against all invasion of enemies. In the choise of them for warre-service, they regard and consider their strength, their age, and bignesse of bodie. But to leave them. An Islnd there is within the river Ganges, between two armes thereof, of great largenesse and capacitie, which receiveth one nation by it selfe, apart from others, and named it is Modogalica. Beyond it are seated the Modubians and Molindians, where standeth the stately cittie Molinda,100 situate in a plentifull and rich soile. Moreover, the Galmodroesians, Pretians, Calissæ, Sasuri, Passalæ, Colubæ, Orxulæ, Abali, and Taluctæ. The king of these countries hath in ordinarie for his warres 50000 foot, 3000 horse, and 400 Elephants.101 Then you enter into a countrey of a more puissant and valiant nation, to wit, the Andarians, planted with many villages well peopled: and moreover with thirtie great townes, fortified with strong walls, towers, & bastiles. These find and maintaine prest and readie to serve the king in his wars, an Infanterie of 100000 foot, a Cavallerie of 2000 horse, and a 1000 Elephants102 besides, well appointed. Of all the regions of India, the Dardanian countrey is most rich in gold mines; and the Selian, in silver. But above all the nations of India throughout, and not of this tract and quarter onely, the Prasij farre exceed in puissance, wealth, and reputation; where the most famous, rich and magnificient citie Palibotria standeth: whereof some have named the people about it, yea and all the nation generally beyond Ganges, Palibotrians. Their king keepeth continually in pay 600000 footmen, 30000 horsmen, and 9000 Elephants, every day in the yeere. Whereby you may soone guesse the mightie power and wealth of this prince. Beyond Palibotria, more within the firme land, inhabite the Monedes and Suari, where standeth the mountaine Maleus: and there for sixe moneths space, the shadowes in winter time fall Northward; and in summer season, goe into the South. The pole Arcticke starres in all that tract, are seene but once in the yeere, and that, no longer than for 15 dayes, as Beton maketh report:103 but Megasthenes writeth, that this is usuall in other parts of India. The Antarctick or South pole, the Indians call Dromosa.104 As for the river Iomanes, which runneth into Ganges, it traverseth through the Palibotrians countrey, and passeth between the townes Methora and Cyrisoborca.105 Beyond the river Ganges, in that quarter and climate which lyeth Southward, the people are caught with the sunne, and begin to be blackish: but yet not all out so sun-burnt and black indeed as the Moores and Æthiopians. And it seemeth, that the neerer they approach to the river Indus, the deeper coloured they are and tanned with the sunne: for you are not so soone past the Prasians country, but presently you are upon Indus: and among the mountains of this tract, the Pygmæans (by report) doe keepe. Artemidorus writeth, that betweene these two rivers, there is a distance of 21 miles.
The river Indus.
The great river Indus, which the people of that countrey call Sandus,106 issueth out of a part or dependance of the hill Caucasus, which is called Paropamisus: he taketh his course and runneth full against the sun-rising, and maketh 19 rivers more to loose their names, which he taketh in unto him. Among which, the principall are these, Hydaspes one, bringing with him foure more: and Cantabra another, accompanied with three besides. Moreover, of such as are of themselves navigable without the help of others, Acesines and Hypasis. And yet for all these additions, the river of Indus (such a sober and modest course as it were, his waters keepe) is in no place either above 50 stadia over, or deeper than 15 paces, i. threescore and fifteene foot, or twelve fadome and a halfe. This river encloseth within two braunches of it, a right great Island named Prasiane, and another that is lesse, which they call Patale. As for himselfe, they that have written of him with the least, say that hee beareth vessels for 1240 miles: and turning with the course of the sunne, keepeth him companie Westward, untill he is discharged into the Ocean. The measure of the sea-coast from Ganges unto him, I will set downe generally and in grosse, as I find it written: albeit there is no agreement at all of Authors, as touching this point. From the mouth of Ganges where he entreth into the sea unto the cape Caliugon107 and the towne Dandagula, are counted 725 miles:108 from thence to Tropina 1225 miles. Then to the promontorie of Perimula, where standeth the chiefe mart or towne of merchandise in all India, they reckon 750 miles: from which to the towne abovesaid Patale within the Island 620 miles. The mountainers inhabiting betweene it and Iomanes, are the Cesti and Celiboni,109 wild and savage people: next to them, the Megallæ, whose king hath in ordinarie prest for service 500 Elephants; of foot and horsemen a great number, but uncertaine it is how many; sometime more, sometime fewer. As for the Chryseans, Parasangians, and Asangians,110 they are full of the wild and cruell tygres: they are able to arme 30000 foot and 800 horse, and to set out with furniture 300 Elephants. This countrey is on three sides environed and enclosed with a raunge of high mountaines: all desert and full of wildernesse for 625 miles, and of one side confined with the river Indus. Beneath those wild hills,111 you enter among the Dari and Suræ; and then you come againe to wast deserts for 188 miles, compassed about for the most part with great barres and bankes of sand, like as the Islands with the sea. Under these desert forrests, you shall meet with the Maltecores, Cingians, Marobians, Rarungians, Moruntes, Masuæ, and Pangungæ.112 Now for those who inhabite the mountaines, which in a continuall raunge without interruption stand upon the coasts of the Ocean, they are free states and subject to no prince, and many faire townes and cities they hold among these cliffes and craggie hills. Then come you to the Naræans, enclosed within the highest mountaine of all the Indian hills, Capitalia. On the other side of this mountaine, great store there is all over it, of gold and silver mines, wherein the inhabitants doe digge. Then, yee enter upon the kingdome of Oratura, whose king indeed hath but 10 Elephants in all, howbeit a great power of footmen. And so forward to the Varetates, who under their king keepe no Elephants at all for his service, trusting upon their Cavallerie and Fanterie, wherein they are strong. And next to them the Odomboërians and Salabastres, where standeth a goodly faire citie called Horata,113 environed and fortified with deepe fosses and ditches full of standing water:114 wherein there keepe a great number of Crocodiles, which for the greedie appetite they have to devoure mens bodies, will suffer none to passe into the towne, but over the bridge. Another towne there is besides among them, of great name and importance, to wit, Automela, standing upon the sea side: and otherwise much resort there is unto it of merchants from al parts, by reason of 5 great rivers which meet all there in one confluence. Their king maintaineth in ordinarie 1600 Elephants, 150000 footmen, and 5000 horse. The king of the Charmians is but poore to speake of, his strength lyeth in 60 Elephants; for his power otherwise is but small. Being past that realme, you come into the countrey of the Padians, the only nation of all the Indians, which is governed by women. One of this sexe, they say, was begotten sometime by Hercules, in which regard shee was the better accepted, and had the prerogative of the regencie over the greatest kingdome. From her the other Queens fetch their pedigree, and have the dominion and rule over thirtie great townes,115 and the commaund of 150000 foot and 500 Elephants. Beyond this realme, you come to the nation of the Syrieni, containing 300 cities: and from them to the Deraugæ, Posunge, Bugæ, Gogyarei, Umbræ, Nereæ, Brancosi, Nobundæ, Cocondæ, Nesei, Pedatritæ, Solobriasæ, and Olostræ, who confine upon the Island ¶ Patale: from the utmost point of which Island unto the gates Caspiæ, are reckoned 18025 miles. Now on this side the river Indus, just against them, as appeareth by evident demonstration, there dwell the Amatæ, Bolingæ, Gallitalutæ, Dimuri, Megari, Ordabæ, and Mesæ. Beyond them, the Uri and Sileni:116 and then you come to the deserts for 250 miles: which when yee have passed over, you shall meet with the Organages, the Abaorts, Sibaræ, and the Suertæ: and beyond these, a wildernesse againe, as great as the former. Passe on farther, you come among the Sarophages, Sorgæ, Baraomatæ, and the Gunbretes: of whome there be 13 severall nations, and each one hath two great cities apeece. As for the Aseni, they people three cities: their capital cite is Bucephala, built in the very place where king Alexanders horse called Bucephalus, was enterred. Above them, are the mountainers on the rising of the hill Caucasus, named Soleadæ and Sondræ: and when you are on the other side of the river Indus, as you goe along the coast and banks thereof, you shall see the Samarabrians, the Sambrucenes, the Brisabrites, Osij, Autixeni, and Taxillæ, with a famous citie called Amandra: of which all that tract now lying more flat and plaine within the countrey, is named Amandria.117 Foure other nations there are besides of Indians, the Peucolaitæ, Arsagalites, Geretes, and Asei: for many of the Geographers set not down Indus the river, for to determine the marches of the Indians Westward; but lay thereto 4 other provinces and severall seignories, to wit, of the Geodrosians, Arachotes, Arij, and Paropamisades.
The Arij, and other nations depending unto them.
Other writers are of opinion, that the utmost frontier and limit of India, is the river Cophetes, and both it and all those quarters are included within the territorie or province of the Arij: yea and most of them affirme, that the citie Nysa, as also the mountaine Merus consecrated to god Bacchus, belong unto India as parcels thereof. This is that mountaine whereof arose the poëticall fable, That Bacchus therein was borne and issued out of Iupiter his thigh. Likewise they assigne and lay to India, the countrey of the Aspagores, so plentifull in vines, laurels, and box, and generally of all sorts of apple trees and other fruitfull trees that grow within Greece.118 Many straunge, wonderfull, and in maner fabulous things, they report of the fertilitie of that land, of the dives sorts of corne, of trees bearing cotton, of wild beasts, of birds, and other creatures there breeding and living: which because they are not properly belonging to this treatise now in hand, I will reserve them for another part of this worke, and write more particularly of them in their due and severall places. And as for those 4 provinces or Satrapies, which I touched before, I will speake of them soone after and within a while: for now I hasten and think it long untill I have said somwhat of the Island Taprobane. And yet before I come to it, there be other Isles which I cannot passe by, and namely that of Patala, which I noted to lye in the verie mouth of the river Indus, and it carrieth the forme and fashion of a triangle figure, and is 220 miles long. Without the mouth of the river Indus, two other Islands there be, Chryse and Agyræ, so named (as I thinke) of the gold and silve mines which they doe yeeld: for I cannot easily beleeve, that the verie earth and soile there is all gold and silver entire, as some have made report.119 Twentie miles from them, lyeth the Isle Crocala: and 12 miles farther into the sea, Bibaga, where, of oysters and other shell-fishes called Purples, are found good store. And last of all, nine miles beyond it, Toralliba120 sheweth it selfe, and many other petie Islands of no regard.
The Iland Taprobane.
It hath beene of long time thought by men in auncient dayes, that Taprobane was a second world, in such sort as many have taken it to be the place of the Antipodes, and called it, The Antichthones world. But after the time of Alexander the Great, and the voiage of his armie into those parts, it was discovered and knowne for a truth, both that it was an Island, and what compasse it bare. Onesicratus the Admirall of his fleet, hath written, that the Elephants bred in this Island be bigger, more fierce and furious for war-service, than those of India: Megasthenes saith, that there is a great river which parteth it in twaine, and that the people thereof dwelling along the river, be called Palæogoni:121 adding moreover, that it affourdeth more gold, and bigger pearles by far, than India doth. Eratosthenes also tooke the measure thereof, and saith, that in length it beareth 7000 stadia, and in bredth 5000: that in it there be no cities & great towns, but villages to the number of 700.122 It beginneth at the Levant sea of Orientall Indians, from which it stretcheth and extendeth betweene the East and West of India: and was taken in times past to lye out into the sea from the Prasian countrey twentie dayes sailing. But afterwards, for that the boates and vessels used upon this sea in the passage thither, were made and wound of papyr reeds like those of the river Nilus, and furnished with the same kind of tacklng, the voyage thither from the foresaid countrey was gaged within a lesse time: and well knowne it was, that according to the saile of our ships and gallies, a man might arrive there in seven daies. All the sea lying betweene, is verie ebbe, full of shallowes and shelves, no more than five fathom deepe. Howbeit in certain chanels that it hath, it is so deepe that it cannot be sounded, neither will any ancres reach the botome and there rest: and withall, so streight and narrow these channels are, that a ship cannot turne within them: and therefore to avoid that necessitie of turning about in these seas, the ships have proes at both ends, and are pointed ech way.123 In sailing, they observe no starre at all. As for the North pole, they never see it: but they carrie ever with them certaine birds in their shippes, which they send out oftentimes when they seeke for land, observing ever their flight; for knowing well that they will flie to land, they accompanie them, and bend their course accordingly: neither use they to saile more than one quarter in the yeere: and for one hundred dayes after the sunne is entred into Cancer, they take most heed and never make saile; for during that time it is winter season with them. And thus much we come to knowledge of, by relation of auncient writers. But wee came to farre better intelligence, and more notable information, by certaine Embassadours comming out of that Island, in the time of Claudius Cæsar the Emperour: which happened upon this occasion and after this manner. It fortuned, that a freed slave of Annius Plocamus, who had fermed of the Exchequer the customes for impost of the red sea, as he made saile about the coasts of Arabia, was in such wise driven with the North winds besides the realme of Carmania, and that for the space of 15 dayes, that in the end hee fell with an harbour thereof called Hippuros, and there arrived. When was was set on land, he found the king of that countrey so courteous, that hee gave him entertainment for 6 moneths, and entreated him with all kindnesse that could be devised. And as he used to discourse and question with him about the Romanes and their Emperour, he recounted unto him at large of all things. But among many other reports that he heard, he wondred most of all at their justice in all their dealings, and was in love therewith, and namely, that their Denieres of the money which was taken were alwais of like weight, notwithstanding that the sundry stamps and images upon the peeces shewed plainly that they were made by divers persons. And hereupon especially was he mooved and sollicited to seeke for the alliance and amitie of the people of Rome: and so dispatched 4 Embassadours of purpose, of whom one Rachias was the chiefe and principall personage. By these Embassadours we were enformed of the state of that Island, namely, that it contained five hundred great towns in it: and that there was a haven therin regarding the South coast, lying hard under Palesimundum124 the principall citie of all that realme, and the kings seat and pallace: that there were by just account 200000 of commoners and citizens: moreover, that within this Iland there was a lake 270125 miles in circuit, containing in it certaine Islands good for nothing else but pasturage, wherein they were fruitfull; out of which lake there issued two rivers, the one, Palesimundus, passing neere to the citie abovesaid of that name, and running into the haven with three streames, whereof the narrowest was five stadia broad, and the largest 15; the other Northward on India side, named Cydara: also that the next cape of this countrey to India, is called Colaicum126 from which to the neerest port of India is counted four daies sailing: in the mids of which passage, there lyeth in the way, the Iland of the Sunne. They said moreover, that the water of this sea was all of a deepe greene colour; and more than that, full of tres growing within it: insomuch as the pylots with their helmes many times brake off the heads and tops of those trees. The starres about the North pole, called Septentriones, the Waines or Beares, they wondred to see here among us in our Hemisphere: as also the Brood-hen, called Vergiliæ in Latine, as if it had been another heaven. They confessed also they never saw with them, the moone above the ground before it was 8 dayes old, nor after the 16 day. That the Canopus, a goodly great and bright starre about the pole Antarcticke, used to shine all night with them. But the thing that they marveiled and were most astonied at was this, that they observed the shadows of their own bodies fell to our Hemisphere, and not to theirs; and that the sunne arose on their left hand and set on their right, rather than contrariwise. Furthermore they related, that the front of that Iland of theirs which looked toward India, contained 10000 stadia, and reached from the Southeast beyond the mountains Enodi.127 Also, that the Seres were within their kenning, whom they might easily discover from out of this their Island; with whome they had acquaintance by the meanes of trafficke and merchandise: and that Rachias his father used many times to travaile thither. Affirming moreover, that if any straunger came thither, they were encountred and assailed by wild and savage beasts: and that the inhabitants themselves were giants of stature, exceeding the ordinarie proportion of men, having red haire, eies of colour blewish, their voice for sound horrible, for speech not distinct nor intelligible for any use of trafficke and commerce. In all things else their practise is the same that our merchants and occupiers doe use: for on the farther side of the river, when wares and commodities are laid downe, if they list to make exchaunge they have them away, and leave other merchandise in lieu thereof to content the forrein merchant. And verily no greater cause have we otherwise to hate and abhor this excessive superfluitie, than to cast our eye so far and consider with our selves, what it is that we seeke for, from what remote parts we fetch it, and to what end we so much desire all this vanitie. But even this Island Taprobane, as farre off as it is, seeming as it were cast out of the way by Nature, and divided from all this world wherein we live, is not without these vices and imperfections wherewith we are tainted and infected. For even gold and silver also is there, in great request and highly esteemed: and marble, especially if it be fashioned like a tortoise shell. Iemmes and precious stones; pearles also, such as be orient and of the better sort, are highly prised with them: and herein consisteth the verie heigth of our superfluous delights. Moreover, these Embassadours would say, that they had more riches in their Island, than wee at Rome, but we more use thereof than they. They affirmed also, that no man with them had any slaves to commaund: neither slept they in the morning after day-light, ne yet at all in the day time. That the manner of building their houses was low, somewhat raised above the ground and no more adoe: that their markets were never deare, nor price of victuals raised. As for courts, pleading of causes, and going to law, they knew not what it meant. Hercules was the onely god whome they worshipped. Their king was always chosen of the people: wherein they had these regards; that hee were aged, mild, and childlesse: but in case hee should beget children afterward, then hee was deposed from his regall dignitie, to the end that the kingdome should not in processe of time be hereditarie and held by succession, but by election onely. This king being thus chosen and invested, hath thirtie other governours assigned unto him by the people: neither can any person bee condemned to death, unlesse hee be cast by the more part of them, and pluralitie of voices: and thus condemned as hee is, yet may hee appeale unto the people. Then there are 70 judges deputed to sit upon his cause: and if it happen that they assoile and quit this partie condemned: then those 30 who condemned him, are displaced from their state and dignitie, with a most bitter and greevous rebuke, and for ever after, as disgraced persons live in shame and infamie. As for the king, arraied he is in aparrell as prince Bacchus went in old time: but the subjects and common people are clad in the habit of Arabians. If it fortune that the king offend, death is his punishment: howbeit, no man taketh in hand to doe execution. All men turne away their faces from him, and deigne him not a looke nor a word. But to doe him to death in the end, they appoint a solemne day of hunting, right pleasant and agreeable unto Tygres and Elephants, before which beasts they expose their king, and so he is presently by them devoured. Moreover, in that Island good husbands they are for their ground, and til the same most diligently. Vines have they no use of at all: for all sorts of fruits otherwise they have abundance. They take also a great pleasure and delight in fishing, and especially in taking of tortoisses: and so great they are found there, that one of their shels will serve to cover an house: and so the inhabitants doe employ them in steed of roufes. They count an hundred yeeres no long life there: that is the ordinarie time of their age. Thus much we have learned and knowne touching Taprobane. It remaineth now to say somewhat of those four Satrapies or provinces, which we did put off unto this place. Of them therefore as followeth.
Beyond those nations that confine hard upon the river Indus, as ye turne toward the mountaines, yee enter upon the realme of Capissæne, wherein sometime stood the citie Capissa, which Cyrus the king caused to bee rased. At this day there standeth the citie Arachosia, with a river also of that name in the countrey Arachosia: which citie some have called Cophe, founded by queene Semiramis. There likewise is to be seen the river Hermandus, which runneth by Abeste, a citie of the Arachosians.128 The next that confront Arachosia Southward, toward part of the Arachotes, are the Gedrosi: and on the North side, the Paropamisades. As for the towne Cartana, named afterwards Tetragonius, situate it is at the foot of the mountain Caucasus. This countrey lieth overagainst the Bactrians: then you come to the principall towne thereof Alexandria, named so of king Alexander the founder thereof: upon the marches whereof are the Syndari, Dangulæ, Porapiani, Cantaces, and Maci. Moreover, upon the hill Caucasus standeth the towne Cadrusi, built likewise by the said Alexander.129 On this side all these regions lieth the coast of the river Indus.130 Then followeth the region of the Arianes, all scorched and senged with the parching heat of the Sunne, and environned about with deserts: howbeit, many shaddowie vallies lie betweene to allay the exceeding heat. Well peopled it is about the two rivers especially, Tonderos and Arosapes. Therein standeth the citie Artacoana. Being past it, the river Arius runneth under the citie Alexandria, built by Alexander the great. The towne containeth in compasse 30 stadia. Then come you to Artacabane, a cittie as it is much more auncient, so it is also fairer by farre, which by Antiochus the king was walled the second time, and enlarged to 50 stadia. The next in order is the nation of the Dorisci.131 The rivers Pharnacotis and Ophradus. Prophtasia, a towne in Zarasparia. The Drangæ, Argetæ,132 Zarangæ, and Gedrusij. Townes moreover, Peucolais and Lymphorta. After you are past their territorie, you enter into the deserts of the Methoricanes: and so to the river Manain, and the nation of the Augutturi. The river Borru,133 the people called Urbi, the navigable river Ponamus,134 which passeth through the marches of the Pandanes. Over and besides, the river Ceberon within the countrey of the Sorares,135 which in the mouth thereof where it falleth into the sea, maketh many baies and harbours. As you go farther, you come upon the towne Candigramma, with the river Cophes: into which there runne other rivers that carrie vessels, to wit, Sadarus, Paraspus, and Sodinus. As for the countrey Darius, some would have it to be a part of Ariana, and they set downe the measure of them both together, to be in length 1950 miles,136 and in breadth lesse by halfe than India. Others have set down that the countrey of the Gedrusians and Scyrians may containe 183 miles. Being passed which quarters, you enter into the region of the Ichthyophagi, surnamed Oritæ or Mountainers (who have a proper language by themselves, and speake not in the Indian tongue) which reacheth on still for 200 miles. And beyond it you meet with the people of the Arbians, who likewise continue for other 200 miles. As for those Ichthyophagi beforenamed, Alexander by an expresse edict forbad them all to feed on fish.137 Being past them, you are in the deserts: and beyon them you come into Carmania, Persis, and Arabia. But before that we treat distinctly of these countries, I thinke it meet to set downe what Onesicritus (who having the conduct of a fleet under Alexander the great, sailed from off India, about the Southerly coasts of Persis) reporteth, according to those intelligences which came lately from king Iuba. In like manner those voiages of ours for these yeeres past performed, by which even at this day wee are guided. Howbeit, in the reports made by Onesicritus and Nearchus of their navigations, we find neither the distance, ne yet the names of the severall resting places, after every daies journey. And to begin with the citie Xylenepolis built by Alexander, from which they entred first into their voiage, it is not put downe by them, either in what place it is situate, nor upon what river. Yet these particulars following are by them reported worth remembrance: to wit, that in this voiage Nearchus founded a town in those parts: that the river Nabrus138 runneth therby, and is able to bear great vessels: overagainst which there is an Island 70 stadia within the sea. Moreover, that Leonatus caused Alexandria to be built in the frontiers of that region, by direction and commaundement from king Alexander, where the river Argenus139 entereth into the sea, and yeeldeth a safe and commodious haven. Also that the river Tuberum140 is navigable, along the bankes whereof the Parites141 inhabite. And after them the Ichthyophagi, who take up so long a tract, that they were 20 daies142 sailing by their coasts. They make relation likewise of the Island of the Sun, named also the couch or bed of the nimphs:143 This Island is red all over, and no living creature will live therein, but is consumed and perisheth no man knoweth how or upon what cause. 144 They speake besides of the nation of the Orians: as also of Hytanis a river in Carmania, which affourdeth many baies and harbours, yea, and plentie of gold in the gravell and sand thereof. And here was the first place wherein they observed, that they had a sight of the North-pole starre. As for the starre Arcturus, they affirmed, that they saw it not every night, nor at any time all night long. Furthermore, that the countrey of the Achæmenides in Persea, reached thus farre. Over and besides, that as they travelled, ordinarily they found good store of mines, wherein was digging for brasse, yron, Arsenicke or Sardaracha,145 and Vermillion.146 And then they came to the cape of Carmania: from which to the coast overagainst them of the Maræ, a people in Arabia, the cut over sea is 50 miles. Upon these coasts they discovered three Islands, whereof Organa147 onely is inhabited, by reason of fresh waters within it, and from the continent it lieth about 25 miles. And foure Islands more they fell upon, even in the Persian gulfe overagainst Persia. And about these Islands they might see sea-adders and serpents so monstrous great, that as they came swimming toward them, they put the very fleet in great fright, for there were among them some, 20 cubites long. Beyond it they met with the Island Acrotadus: likewise the Gaurates Isles, wherein the nation of the Chiani doe inhabite. About the middle of this gulfe or arme of the sea, the river Hiperis hath his course, able to bear great hulkes and ships of burden. Also the river Sitiogagus, upon which a man may passe in seven daies to Pasargadia. Also a river that is navigable called Phirstimus,148 and an Island within it, but it is namelesse. As for the river Granius which runneth through Susiane, it carrieth but small vessels. Along the coast on the right hand of this river dwell the Deximontanes, who dresse and prepare Bitumen. Then they come to the river Oroatus,149 with a dangerous haven or mouth where it falleth into the sea, unlesse a man be guided by skilfull pilots: and full against this river there are discovered two little Islands. Past which, the sea is very low and shallow, full of shelves and sands, more like a meere and marish water, than a sea. Howbeit, there bee certaine trenches or channels in it that draw deepe water, wherein they may without daunger saile. Then met they with the mouth of the river Euphrates. Also the lake, which the two rivers Eulæus and Tigris doe make, neere unto Characum. And so from thence they arrived upon the river Tigris, at Susa. And there an end of the navigation performed by Onesicritus and Nearchus. For after they had beene three months embarked and in their voiage upon the sea, they found Alexander at Susa (where he feasted and made solemne bankets) and that was seven months after he parted from them at Patælæ. And thus much concerning the voiage of Alexander his fleet. Now afterwards from Syagrus, a Promontorie in Arabia, it was counted unto Patale 1332 miles, and held it was for certain then, that the West wind which the people of that countrey call Hypalus, was thought most proper for to make saile to the same place. Howbeit the age ensuing discovered a shorter and safer cut, namely, if from the said promontorie or cape Syagrus, they set their course directly to the mouth of the river Zizerus150 which maketh an harborough in India. And in truth this passage held a long time, untill such time that in the end the merchants found out a more compendious and shorter course, and gained by their voiage to India: for every yeere now they saile thither, and for feare of pirates and rovers that were wont very much to infest and annoy them, they used to embarke in their ships certain companies of Archers. And seeing that all thse seas are now discovered, and never before so certainely, I will not thinke much of my paines, to declare and shew the whole course of our Indian voiages from out of Ægypt. And first and formost this is a thing worthie to be noted and observed of every man, that there is not a yeere goeth over our heads, but it costs our State to furnish a voiage into India, 500 hundred thousand Sesterces, i. fiftie millions of Sesterces. For which the Indians sendeth backe againe commodities and merchandise of their owne, which being at Rome, are sold for an hundred times as much as they cost, or yeeld in the price an hundredfold gaine. But to returne againe to our voiage, from Alexandria in Ægypt, it is two miles to Iuliopolis: from whence upon the river of Nilus, they saile 303 miles to Coptus, which may be done in twelve daies space, having the Etesian winds at the poupe. From Coptus they travell forward upon Cammels backs: and for great default of water in those parts, there be certaine set places for bait, lodging, and watering. The first is called Hydreuma, 32 miles from Coptus. The second one daies journey from thence, in a certaine mountaine. The third watering place at another Hydreuma, 95 miles from Coptus.151 The fourth againe in a second mountaine. The fifth is a third Hydreuma of Apollo, from Coptus 184 miles. Beyond which, the resting place is upon another hill. And then to Hydreuma the new, from Coptus 234 miles.¶¶ Another water towne there is, called Hydreuma the old, named also Troglodyticum, where two miles out of the port way lieth a garrison, keeping watch and ward both day and night: and foure miles distant it is from new Hydreuma. From whence they travell to the towne Berenice, an haven towne standing upon the red sea, 258 miles from Coptus. But for as much as the journey all this way is for the most part performed in the night season, by reason of the excessive heat, and the travellers are forced to rest all the day long, therefore twelve daies are set down for the whole voiage betweene Coptus and Berenice. The time then that they usually begin to set saile, is about Midsummer before the dog daies, or presently upon the rising of the dog starre. And about the 30 daies end they arrive at Ocelis in Arabia, or els at Cama,152 within Saba, the countrey of incense.153 A third port there is besides called Muza, unto which there is no resort of merchants out of India: neither is it in request but with merchants that adventure onely for incense, drugs, and spices of Arabia. Howbeit, peopled this countrey is within-forth, and hath divers great townes. Of which, Saphar is the principall, and the kings seat: and another besides of good importance called Sabe. But for them that would make a voiage to the Indians, the most commodious place to st forward is Ocelis: for from thence, and with the West wind called Hypalus, they have a passage of fortie daies sailing to the first towne of merchandise in India, called Muziris. Howbeit a port this is, not greatly in request, for the daunger of pirates and rovers, which keepe ordinarily about a place called Hydræ:154 and besides that, it is not richly stored and furnished with merchandise. And more than so, the harborough is farre from the towne, so as they must charge and discharge their ware too and fro in little boats. At the time when I wrote this storie, the king that reigned there, was named Celebothras. But another haven there is more commodious, belonging to the Necanidians, which they cal Becare: the kings name at this present is Pandion: not far off is another town of merchandise within the firme land, called Madusa. As for that region, from whence they transport pepper in small punts or troughes made of one peece of wood, it is named Cotona.155 And yet of all these nations, havens, and townes, there is not a name found in any of the former writers. By which it appeareth, that there hath been great change and alteration in these places. But to come againe to India, our merchants returne from thence back in the beginning of our moneth December, which the Ægyptians call Tybis:156 or at farthest before the sixt day of the Ægyptians month Machiris, and that is before the Ides of Ianuarie:157 and by this reckoning they may passe to and fro, and make returne within the compase of one yeer. Now when they saile from India, they have the Northeast wind Vulturnus with them: and when they are entred once into the red sea, the South or Southwest. Now will we return to our purposed discourse as concerning Carmania. The coast where after the reckoning of Nicearchus may take in circuit 12050 miles. From the first marches thereof to the river Sabis is counted 100 miles. From whence all the way as farre as to the river Andaius,158 the countrey is rich and plenteous, for in it are vineyards and corne fields, well husbanded. This whole tract is called Amuzia.159 The principal towns of Carmania be Zetis and Alexandria. Upon the marches of this realme, the sea breaketh into the land in two armes: which our countreymen are wont to call the red sea, and the Greekes Erythræum, of a king named Erythras: or (as some thinke) because the sea by reason of the reflection and beating of the Sunne beames, seemeth of a reddish colour. There be that suppose that this rednesse is occasioned of the sand and ground which is red: and others againe, that the very water is of the owne nature so coloured.
The Persian and Arabian gulfes.
This red sea is divided into two armes: that from the East is named the Persian gulfe, & beareth in compasse 2500 miles, by the computation of Eratosthenes. Overagainst this gulfe is160 Arabia, which lieth in length 1200 miles. On the other side another arme there is of it called the Arabian gulfe, which runneth into the Ocean, called Azanius. The mouth of the Persian gulfe where it maketh entrance, is five miles over, and some have made it but foure. From which to the furthest point thereof, taketh a direct and streight measure by a line, and for certaine it is knowne that it containeth 1125 miles: and is fashioned like for all the world to a mans head. Onesicritus and Nearchus have written, That from the river Indus to the Persian gulfe, & so from thence to Babylon by the meeres and fennes of the river Euphrates, it is 2500 miles. In an angle of Carmania inhabit the Chelonophagi, i. such as feed upon the flesh of Tortoises, and the shels of them serve for roufes to cover their cottages. They inhabite all that coast along the river Arbis, even to the very cape: rough they are, hairie all their bodie over but their heads, and weare no other garment but fish skinnes.
The Island Caßandrus: and the kingdomes under the Parthians.
When you are passed this tract of the Chelonophagi, directly toward India, there lieth fiftie miles within the sea, the Island Cassandrus, by report all desert and not inhabited: and neere unto it, with a little arme of the sea betweene, another Island called Stois; wherein pearles are good chaffer, and yeeld gainefull trafficke. But to returne again to Carmania, when you are beyond the utmost cape therof, you enter presently upon the Armozei, who joine upon the Carmanians. But some say, that the Arbij are between both: and that their coasts may contain in the whole 402 miles.161 There are to bee seene the port or haven of the Macedonians, & the alters or columnes which Alexander erected upon the very promontorie & utmost cape. Where also be the rivers Saganos, Daras, and Salsos. Beyond which is the cape Themisceas,162 and the Island Aphrodisias well peopled. Then beginneth the realme of Persis, which extendeth to the river Oroatus, that devideth it from Elymais. Overagainst the coasts of Persis, these Islands bee discovered, Philos,163 Cassandra, and Aratia,164 with an exceeding high mountaine in it: and this Island is held consecrated unto Neptune. The very kingdome of Persis Westward hath the coasts lying out in length 450 miles.165 The people are rich, and given to roiall and superfluous expense in all things: and long since it is, that they are become subject unto the Parthians, and carie their name. And seeing that we are come to mention them, we will breefely now speake of their Empire and dominion. The Parthians have in all 18 realmes under them: for so they tearmed all their provinces, as they lie devided about the two seas, as we have before said:166 namely the red sea Southward, and the Hircane sea, toward the north. Of which, eleven that lie above in the countrey, and are called the higher provinces, they take their beginning at the confines & marches of Armenia, and the coasts of the Caspians of the one side: and reach to the Scythians, whom they confront of the other side, with whom they converse and keepe companie together as equals. The other seven are called the base or lower Realmes. As for the Parthians, their land was alwaies counted to lie at the foot and descent of those mountaines, whereof we have so often spoken, which doe environ and enclose all those nations. It confineth Eastward upon the Arij, and Southward, upon Carmania and the Arians: on the West side it butteth upon the Pratites and Medes:167 and on the North, boundeth upon the realme of Hircania: compassed round about with deserts and mountaines. The utmost nations of the Parthians before yee come to those deserts be called Nomades: and their cheefe townes seated toward the West, are Issaris168 and Calliope, whereof wee have written before: but toward the Northeast, Europum;169 and Southeast, Mania.169 In the heart and midland standeth the citie Hecatompylos, as also Arsacia. And there likewise the noble region of Nysæa in Parthyerum: together with the famous citie Alexandropolis, bearing the name of Alexander the first founder.
Media, Mesopotamia, Babylon, and Seleucia.
Requisite now it is and needful in this place to describe the positure and situation of the Medians kingdom, and to discover all those countries round about, as farre as to the Persian sea, to the end that the description of other regions hereafter to bee mentioned, may the better bee understood. Wherein this first and formost is to bee observed, that the kingdome of Media on the one side or other confronteth both Persis and Parthia, and casting forth a crooked and winding home as it were toward the West, seemeth to enclose within that compasse both the said realmes. Neverthelesse, on the East side it confineth upon the Parthians and Caspians: on the South, Sittacene, Susiane, and Persis: Westward, Adiabene: and Northward, Armenia. As for the Persians, they alwaies confronted the red sea, wherupon it was called the Persian gulfe. Howbeit, the maritime coast thereof is called Cyropolis, and that part which confineth upon Media, Elymais.171 In this realme there is a strong fort called Megala, in the ascent of a steepe high hill, so direct upright, that a man must mount up to it by steps and degrees, and otherwise the passage is very streight and narrow. And this way leadeth to Persepolis the head citie of the whole kingdome, which Alexander caused to bee rased. Moreover, in the frontiers of this Realme, standeth the citie Laodicea, built by king Antiochus. From whence as you turn into the East, the strong fort or castle Passagarda172 is seated, which the sages or wise men of Persia called Magi, doe hold, and therein is the tombe of Cyrus. Also the citie Ecbatana belonging to these sages, which Darius the king caused to be translated into the mountaines.173 Betweene the Parthians and the Arians lie out in length the Parotacenes. These nations and the river Euphrates serve to limit and bound the seven lower realmes beforenamed. Now are we to discourse of the parts remaining behind of Mesopotamia; setting aside one point and corner thereof, as also the nations of Arabia, wherof we spake in the former booke.174 This Mesopotamia was in times past, belonging wholly to the Assyrians, dispersed into petie villages and burgades, all save Babylon and Ninus. The Macedonians were the first, that after it came under their hands reduced it into great citties, for the goodnesse and plentie of their soile and territorie. For now besides the abovenamed townes, it hath in it, Seleucia, Laodicea, and Artemita: likewise within the quarters of the Arabians named Aroei and Mardani,175 Antiochea: and that which being founded by Nicanor, governour of Mesopotamia, is called Arabis. Upon these join the Arabians, but well within the countrey are the Eldamarij. And above them is the cittie Bura, situate upon the river Pelloconta: beyond which are the Salmanes and Maseans, Arabians. Then there joine to the Gordiæans those who are called Aloni,176 by whom the river Zerbis passeth, & so discharged into Tigris. Neere unto them are the Azones & Silices, mountainers, together with the Orentians: upon whom confronteth the citie Gaugamela on the West side. Moreover, there is Sue177 among the rocks: above which are the Sylici & Classitæ,178 through whom Lycus the river runneth out of Armenia. Also, toward the Southeast, Abisitris,179 and the town Azochis. Anon you come down into the plains & champion countrey, where you meet with these towns, Diospage, Posytelia,180 Stratonicea, and Anthemus. As for the citie Nicephorium, as we have once alreadie said,181 it is seated neere to the river Euphrates, where Alexander the great caused it to bee founded, for the pleasant seat of the place, and the commoditie of the countrey there adjoining. Of the citie Apamia we have before spoken in the description of Zeugma: from which, they that goe Eastward meet with a strong fortified towne, in old time carying a pourprise and compasse of 65 stadia,182 called the roiall pallace of their great dukes and potentates, named Satrapæ, unto which from all quarters men resorted to pay their imposts, customes, and tributes: but now it is come to be but a fort and castle of defence. But there continue still in their entier and as flourishing state as ever they were, the citie Hebata and Oruros, unto which by the fortunate conduct of Pompey the Great, the limits and bounds of the Romane Empire were extended; and it is from Zeugma 250 miles.183 Some writers make report, that the river Euphrates was divided by a governour of Mesopotamia, and one arme thereof brought to Gobaris, even in that place where wee said it parted in twaine:184 which was done for feare least one day or other the river with his violent streame should endaunger the citie of Babylon. They affirme moreover, that the Assyrians generally called it ¶¶¶ Armalchar, which signifieth a royall river. Upon this new arme of the river aforesaid, there stood sometime Agrani, one of the greatest townes of that region, which the Persians caused to be utterly rased and destroyed.
As for the cittie of Babylon, the capitall citie of all the Chaldæan nations, for a long time carried a great name over all the world: in regard whereof, all the other parts of Mesopotamia and Assyria was named Babylonia: it contained within the walls 60 miles. The walls were 200 foot in height, and 50 thicke; reckoning to everie foot 3 fingers breadth more than our ordinarie measure.185 Through the mids of this goodly great citie, passeth the river Euphrates: a wonderfull peece of worke, if a man consider both the one and the other. As yet to this day the temple of Iupiter Belus there standeth entire.186 This prince was the first inventer of Astronomie. It is now growne into decay and lyeth wast and unpeopled, by reason that Seleucia the cittie standeth so neere it, which hath drawne from it all resort and traffick: and was for that purpose built by Nicator within 40 myles of it, in the verie confluent where the new arme of Euphrates is brought by a ditch to meet with Tigris: notwithstanding, surnamed it is Babylonia, a free state at this day and subject to no person: howbeit they live after the lawes and manners of the Macedonians. And by report, in this citie there are 600000 cittizens. As for the walls thereof, they do resemble an Eagle spreading her wings: and for the soile, there is not a territorie in all the East parts comparable to it in fertilitie. The Parthians in despight againe of this citie, and for to doe the like by it, as sometime was done to the old Babylon, built the citie Ctesiphon within three miles of it, in the tract called Chalonitis, even to dispeople and impoverish it: which now at this present is the head citie of the kingdome. But when they could doe little or no good thereby to discredit the said new Babylon, of late daies Vologesus their king founded another citie hard by, called Vologeso Certa.187 Moreover, other cities there are besides in Mesopotamia, namely Hyparenum, a citie likewise of the Chaldæans, and ennobled for their learning as well as Babylon: situate upon the river Narragon, which gave the name unto that citie.188 Howbeit the Persians caused this Hypparenum to be dismantled, and the walls thereof to be demolished.189 There be also in this tract, the Orchenes toward the South: from whence is come a third sort of the Chaldæans, called Orcheni. Beeing past this region, you meet with the Notites, Orthophants, and Græciophants.190 Nearchus and Onesicratus, who registred the voyage of Alexander the Great into the Indians, report, That from the Persian sea to the citie of Babylon by the river Euphrates, is 412 miles. But the later and moderne writers, doe count from Seleucia to the Persian gulfe, 490 miles. K. Iuba writeth, that from Babylon to Charax, is 175 miles.191 Some affirme moreover, that beyond Babylon, the river Euphrates maintaineth his entire course and keepeth one channell 87 miles, before that hee is divided into several braunches here and there, for to water the countrey: and that he holdeth on his course from his head to the sea, for the space of 1200 miles.192 This varietie of Authors as touching the measure, is the cause that a man may not so well resolve and conclude thereof, considering that even the very Persians agree not about the dimensions of their Scoenes and Parasanges,193 but have divers measures of them. Whereas the river Euphrates giveth over his own channell, (which for the breadth thereof is a sufficient munition to it selfe) and beginneth to part into divers braunches, which it doth about the marches and confines of Charax, in all that tract neere adjoyning, great daunger there is of the Attalæ, a theevish nation of the Arabians, who presently set upon all passengers comming and going to and fro.194 When ye are past this infamous and suspected region, you shall enter into the countrey of the Schenites. As for the Arabians called Nomades, they occupie all the coasts of the river Euphrates, as farre as to the deserts of Syria: from which place we said that he turned and tooke his way into the South, abandoning the deserts of Palmyrene.195 To conclude, from the beginning and head of Mesopotamia, it is counted to Seleucia, if you passe upon the river Euphrates, 1125 miles: and from the red sea, if you goe by the river Tigris, 320 miles: from Zeugma 527 miles:196 and to Zeugma from Seleucia in Syria upon the coast of our sea, is reckned 175 miles. And this is the very true and just latitude there, of the firme land betweene the two seas, to wit, the Persian gulfe, and the Syrian sea. As for the kingdome of Parthia, it may contain 944 miles. Finally, there is yet another towne of Mesopotamia upon the banke of Tigris, neere the place where the rivers meet in one, which they call Digba.
The river Tigris.
Meet also it is and convenient, to say somewhat of the river Tigris. It beginneth in the land of Armenia the greater, issuing out of a great source, and evident to be seene in the verie plaine: the place beareth the name of Elongosine.197 The river it selfe so long as it runneth slow and softly, is named Diglito;198 but when it beginneth once to carrie a more forcible streame, it is called Tigris, for the swiftnesse thereof; which in the Medians language, betokeneth a shaft.199 It runneth into the lake Arethusa,200 which beareth up aflote all that is cast into it, and will suffer nothing to sinke: and the vapours that arise out thereof, carrie the sent of Nitre. In this lake there is but one kind of fish, and that entreth not into the channell of Tigris as it passeth through, no more than any fishes swim out of Tigris into the water of the lake. In his course and color both, he is unlike, and as he goeth may be discerned from the other: and when he is once past the lake and encountreth the great mountaine Taurus, he looseth himselfe in a certaine cave and hole in the ground, and so runneth under the hill, untill on the other side thereof hee breaketh forth againe and appeareth in his likenesse, in a place which is called Zoroanda. That it is the same river, it is evident by this, that he carrieth through with him and sheweth in Zoroanda, whatsoever was cast into him before he hid himselfe in the cave beforesaid. After this second spring and rising of his, he entreth into another lake and runneth through it likewise, named Thospites; and once againe taketh his way under the earth through certaine blind gutters, and 25 miles beyond he putteth forth his head about Nymphæum. Claudius Cæsar reporteth, that in the country Arrhene, the river Tigris runneth so neere unto the river Arsania, that when they both swell and their waters are out, they joyne both their streames together, yet so, as their water is not intermingled: for Arsanias being the lighter of the twaine, swimmeth and floteth over the other, for the space well-neer of 4 miles: but soone after, they part asunder, and Arsania turneth his course toward the river Euphrates, into which he entreth. But Tigris receiving into him certain goodly great rivers out of Armenia, to wit, Parthenis, Agnice, and Pharion,201 and so dividing the Arabians and Troeans from the Adiabenes,202 and by this meanes making as it were an Iland Mesopotamia beforesaid, after he hath passed by and viewed the mountaines of the Gordiæans neere unto Apamia a town of Mesene on this side Seleucia surnamed Babylonia 125 miles: dividing himselfe in two armes or channels, with the one he runneth Southward to Seleucia, watering as he goeth the countrey of Messene; and with the other windeth into the North: he goeth on the backe side of the said Mesene, and cutteth through the plaines of the Cauchians. Now when these two braunches are reunited againe, the whole is called Pasitrigis. After this, he taketh into him out of Media, the great river Coaspes: and so passing betweene Seleucia and Ctesiphon, as we have said,203 he falleth into the meeres and lakes of Chaldæa, which he furnisheth and replenisheth with water, for the compasse of threescore and ten miles: which done, he issueth forth againe, gushing out with a mightie great and large streame, and running along the towne Charax, on the right hand thereof, hee dischargeth himselfe into the Persian sea, carrying there a mouth ten miles over. Betweene the mouthes of these two rivers, Tigris and Euphrates, where they fall into the sea, were counted in old time 25 miles, or as some would have it, but seven: and yet both of them were navigable, and bare right great ships. But the Orcheniens & other neighbour inhabitants, long since turned the course of Euphrates aside to serve their owne turnes in watering their fields, and stopped the ordinarie passage thereof, insomuch as they forced him to runne into Tigris, and not otherwise than in his channell to fall into the sea. The next countrey bordering upon Tigris, is called Parapotamia: in the marches therof is the citie Mesene, wherof we have spoken.204 The chief towne thereof is Dibitach:205 from thence you enter presently into the region Chalonitis joyning hard upon Ctesiphon, a rich countrey, beautified not onely with rowes of date-trees, but also with olive, apple, and peare trees, and generally with all sorts of fruit. Unto this countrey extendeth the mountaine Zagrus, comming along from out of Armenia, betweene the Medes and the Adiabenes, above Parætacene and the realme of Persis. Chalonitis is from Persis 480 miles distant.206 And some write, that going the streight, direct, and neerest way, it is so much and no more from the Caspian sea to Assyria. Betweene these countries and Mesene lyeth Sittacene, the same it is that Arbelitis and Palæstine. The townes of importance therin, are Sittace held by the Græcians situate toward the East, and Sabata: but on the West side, Antiochia, seated between the two rivers, Tigris and Tornadotus. In like manner Apamia, which Antiochus the king so called after his mothers name. This citie is environed as it were with the river Tigris, and divided with the river Archous that passeth through it. Somewhat lower than these countries, lyeth the region Susiane, wherein stood the auncient royall pallace and seat towne of the Persian KK. Susa, founded by Darius sonne of Hystaspes: and from Seleucia Babylonia, it is 450 miles distant: and as much from Ecbatana in Media, taking the way along the mountaine Charbanus. Upon that braunch of the river Tigris that taketh his course Northward, standeth the towne Babytace:207 and from Susa it is 135 miles. The people of this countrey are the onely men in the world that hate gold: and in very truth get it they doe, and when they have it, they burie it sure enough within the ground, that it might serve for no use.208 Upon the Susianes Eastward, joine the Cossæans,209 Brigands, and theeves generally all. Likewise the Mizæans, a free state and subject to no government, having under them 40 nations, all wild and living as they list. Above these quarters, you enter into the countreys of the Parthusians, Mardians, Saites, and Hyans, who confine upon high Persia, called Elemais, which joyneth to the maritime coasts of Persis, as is abovesaid.210 The citie of Susa is from the Persian sea 250 miles. On that side whereas the Armada of Alexander the Great came up the great river Pasitigris to Susa, there standeth a village upon the lake Chaldais, named Aphle:211 from which to Susa, is 65 miles and an halfe by water. The next that border upon the Susianes Eastward, are the Cossæans: and above the Cossæi Northward, lyeth Mesobatene212 under the hill Cambalidus, which is a braunch and dependant of the mountaine Caucasus: and from thence is the most easie and readie passage into the region Bactriana. The river Eulæus maketh a partition betweene the high countrey of Persis called Elimais, and Susiane. This river issueth out of the Medians countrey, and in the mids of his course looseth himselfe in the ground: but being once up again, he runneth through Mesobatene; and environeth the fort and castle of Susa, with the temple of Diana, which is had in great reverence and honour above all other temples in those parts: yea and the very river it selfe is in much request, and the water thereof ceremoniously regarded: in such wise, as the kings drinke of no other; and therefore they fetch it a great way into the countrey. And it receiveth into it the river Hedypnus,213 which commeth along the priviledged place whereinto the Persians use to retire for sanctuarie, and one more out of the Susianes countrey.214 A town there is planted neer to it, called Magoa, 15 miles from Charax. Yet some there be, that would have this town to stand in the utmost marches of Susiana, even close unto the deserts and mountaines. Beneath the river Eubæus lieth Elimais, joyning unto Persis in the very maritime coast, 240 miles it is from the river Oroates to Charax. The townes in it, be Seleucia and Sosirate, both situate upon the hanging of the hill Casyrus. The flat coast and levell thereof which lieth before it, is as we have said before, no lesse daungerous and unacessible than the Syrts, for quavemires, by reason of the great store of mud and sand together, which the rivers Brixia and Ortacea bring downe with them. Over and besides, the countrey Elimais is so fennie and standeth with water so wet, that there is no way through it to Persis, but a man must fetch a great circcuit & compasse about it to come thereto. Moreover, much haunted it is and annoyed with serpents, which breed and come down in those rivers: and as troublesome as the passage is all the countrey over, yet that part yeeldeth the worst advenues and is least frequented, which they called Characene, of the towne Charax, which limiteth the kingdomes of Arabia: whereof we will speake anon more at large, after we have set downe the opinion of M. Agrippa, which hee hath delivered as touching these quarters: for he hath written, that Media, Parthia, and Persis, are bound on the East side with the river Indus; on the West, with Tigris; on the North part, with the two mountaines, Taurus and Caucasus:215 and on the South coast, with the red sea: also that they extend in length 1320 miles, and in breadth 840. Moreover, that Mesopotamia by it selfe alone, is enclosed Eastward with the river Tigris, Westward with Euphrates; having on the North side the mountaine Taurus, and on the South the Persian sea: lying out in length 800 miles; and in breadth 360. Now to returne unto Charax, the inmost towne within the Persian gulfe, from which Arabia called Eudæmon, i. happie, begins and runneth forth in length; situate it is upon a mount artificially reared by mans hands betweene the confluents of Tygris on the right hand, and Eulæus on the left: and yet notwithstanding it carrieth a pourprise or precinct of three miles compasse.217 Founded first it was by Alexander the great: who having drawne Coloners to inhabite it out of the kings citie Durine (which was then ruinate) and leaving there behind him those souldiours which were not fit for service, nor able to follow in the march, ordained, that this towne should be called Alexandria: and the territorie about it Pellæum, of that town where himselfe was born: and withall appointed, that it should be peopled onely with Macedonians. But this towne of his by him founded, was overthrown and destroied by the two rivers aforesaid. Afterwards king Antiochus the fift rebuilt it againe, and named it of himselfe, Antiochia. But when it was decaied a second time by these rivers, Spasines sonne of Sogdonacus, who held Arabia, bordering neere by as an absolute king, and not (as Iuba reporteth) as a duke or governour under Alexander, raised great wharfes, and opposed mightie dammes and causeies against those rivers, and so reedified the towne a third time. Which done, he called it after his owne name Charax of Spasines: and verily he fortified thus the site and foundation thereof, three miles in length, and little lesse in breadth. At the beginning it stood upon the sea coast, and from the water side not above ten stadia, and even from thence it hath certaine false bastard galleries: but by the report of Iuba in his time, 50 miles. Howbeit, at this day both the Arabian Embassadors, & also our merchants that come from thence, say is from the sea shore 125 miles.217 In such sort, that it cannot be found in any place of the world again, where the earth hath gained more, nor in so short a time, of the water, by reason of the store of mud brought down with rivers. And the more marvell it is, that considering the sea floweth, and the tide riseth farre beyond this towne, yet those made grounds are not beaten backe, and carried away againe. In this very towne I am not ignorant, that Dionysius the latest of our moderne Geographers, was borne: whom Augustus the Emperor sent of purpose beforehand into the East countries to discover those parts, and record faithfully in writing whatsoever hee there found, for the better advertisement of his elder son, who was upon his voiage and expedition of Armenia, to warre against the Parthians and Arabians. Neither have I forgotten, that in my first entrance into this worke in hand, I made some protestation to follow those who had written of their owne countries,218 as men lightly most diligent and of best intelligences in that behalfe. Howbeit, in this place I chuse rather to follow our martiall captaines that have warred there, and report me also to king Iuba, who hath written certaine bookes to C. Cæsar Caligula, as touching the occurrences in the Arabian voiage.
Arabia, Nomades, Nabatæ, and Omani: Tylos and Ogyris two Islands.
Arabia commeth behind no countrey in the world, for largenesse and greatnesse especially, reaching out in length a mightie way. For it beginneth at the fall and descent of the mountaine Amanus overagainst Cilicia and Comagene, as we have beforesaid:219 where it is peopled with many nations brought from thence by Tigranes the great, to inhabit that quarter, and in old time descended naturally, and reached as farre as to our sea and the Ægyptian coast, as we have shewed:220 yea, and extendeth unto the midland parts of Syria unto the mountain Libanus, where the hils reach up to the very clouds: upon which bound the Ramisians, then the Taraneans, and after them the Patami. As for Arabia it selfe, being like a demie Island, runneth out betweene two seas, the red and the Persian, by a certaine artificiall workmanship of Nature, framed according to Italie in likenesse of forme and bignesse: yea, and lieth along the sea coasts in manner of Italie. And more than that, it regardeth the same quarter and line of heaven, without any difference at all. This tract therefore, for the rich seat it hath, is named Foelix, i. Happie. The nations therein dwelling, from our sea coasts unto the deserts of Palmyreum, we have treated of alreadie. Therefore overpassing them, wee will discourse of the rest forward. Now then, the Nomades and those robbers that so lie upon the Chaldæans and trouble them, the people called Scenitæ, as we have beforesaid, doe confine upon. And even they also make no certaine place of abode and habitation, but are called Scenitæ, of their tabernacles and booths which they make of haire cloths, and encampe under them when and where they list. Being past them, you meet with the Nabatæans in the vale, who inhabite a towne there named Petra, little less than two miles large; environned with steepe mountaines round about, which cut off all the advenues to it: and besides, having a river running through the middest thereof. Distant it is from Gaza (a towne situate upon our coast in Syria) 600 miles: and from the Persian gulfe 122.221 And here at this towne meet both the port high waies, to wit, the one which passengers travell to Palmyra in Syria, and the other, wherein they goe from Gaza. Beyond Petra and the vale thereof, you enter into the Omanes countrey: which reached sometime as farre as to Carax, and inhabited two famous townes built by queene Semiramis,222 namely, Abesanius,223 and Soractia. But now all is but a wildernesse. Then come you to a towne named Forath, situate upon the river Pasitigris, and subject to the king of the Caracins or Zarazins:224 to which towne there is much resort from Petra, as to a shier towne: and from thence to Charax, they may passe with the tide when the water ebbeth, for the space of twelve miles. But they that come by water out of the Parthian kingdome, meet with a village called Teredon, lower than the place where Euphrates and Tigris meet together in one.225 Where the Chaldæans inhabite the left hand coast of the river, and the Nomdes called Scenitæ, the right. Some writers affirme, that as yee saile and row upon the river Tigris, ye passe by two other townes distant farre asunder: the one called Barbatia in times past, and afterwards Thumata, which our merchants that trafficke in those parts, avouch to be tenne daies saile from Petra, and is under the king of the Characenes: and the other named Apamia, situate in the very place where Euphrates the river so swelleth over his bankes, that he joineth with Tigris in one confluent. And therefore the Apamians, at what time as the Parthians are about to make inrodes and invade their territorie, set open the sluces, and breake up the wharfes and bankes that keepe these two rivers asunder, and so impeach their enterprise by the overflow and innundation of the waters. Now being past Charax, we will discourse of the other coasts of Arabia, and namely that which first was discovered and declared by Epiphanes. And to begin with the place where sometime the mouth of Euphrates was. When you re once past it, you meet with a river of salt brackish water,226 and the Promontorie or cape Chaldonum: where the sea is more like a deepe pit or whirlepoole than a sea, for 50 miles. Upon this coast you find the river Achana, and beyond it, deserts for 100 miles, untill you come to the Island Ichara. Then sheweth it selfe the gulfe or arme of the sea named Capeus, upon which inhabite the Gaulopes and Chateni. Beyond them another creeke called Gerraicus, and the towne Gerræ upon it, five miles large: and fortified with turrets made of great huge stones squared, of salt mineral.227 Fiftie miles from the sea side is the region Attene: and overagainst it the Island Tylos, as many miles from the shore, with a towne in it, bearing the name of the Island, much frequented by merchants for the plentie of pearles that there bee sold: and not farre from it there is another somewhat lesse, not past twelve miles from the cape of the foresaid Tylos. Beyond these there are discovered by report certaine great Islands, but as yet they have not ben landed upon by our merchants. As for this last Island, it containeth as they say 112 miles and an half in circuit, and is farre from Persis; but no accesse there is unto it, but onely by one narrow gutter or channell. Then sheweth it selfe the Island Asgilia.228 And in these parts likewise are other nations, namely, the Noccheti, Zurachi, Borgodi, Cataræi, and Nomades: and withall the river Cynos. Beyond that, as king Iuba saith, there is no more discovered upon this sea of that side, by reason of the daungerous rockes therein. And I marvell much that hee hath made no mention at all of the towne Batrasabe in the Omanians countrey, ne yet of Omana, which the auncient Geographers have held to be an haven of great importance in the kingdome of Carmania. Item, hee saith not a word of Omne and Athanæ, which our merchants report to bee at this day two famous mart townes, much frequented by those that trafficke from the Persian gulfe. Beyond the river Caius,229 as king Iuba writeth, there is an hill, which seemeth all scorched and burnt. Past which, you enter into the countrey of the Epimaranites: and anone after into the region of the Ichthyophagi: and past them there is discovered a desert Island, and the Bathymians countrey. And so forward,230 the mountaines Eblitæi are discovered, and the Island Omoenus, the haven Machorbæ, the Islands Etaxalos, Onchobrice, and the people called Chadæi. Many other Islands also of no account, and namelesse: but of importance, Isura, Rhinnea: and one other very neere thereto, wherein are standing certaine columnes or pillers231 of stone engraven with unknowne characters and letters. A little beyond, the port-towne Goboea, and the desert unpeopled Islands Bragae. The nation of the Thaludæans: the region Dabanegoris: the mountaine Orsa with an haven under it: the gulfe or arme of the sea called Duatus, with many Islands therein. Also the mountaine Tricoryphus: the countrey Cardalena, the Islands Solanidæ and Capina. Soon after you fall upon other Islands of the Ichthyophagi: and after them the people called Glarians. The strond called Hammæum, wherein are golden mines. The region Canauna. The people Apitami and Gasani. The Island Deuadæ, with the fountaine Goralus. Then come you to the Garphets232 countrey: the Islands Aleu & Amnamethu. Beyond which are the people called Darrae,233 the Island Chelonitis, and many other of the Ichthyophgi. The Isle Eodanda which lieth desert, and Basage, besides many other that belong to the Sabæans. For rivers, you have Thamar and Amnon, and in them the Islands Dolicæ, wherein bee the fountaines Daulotes and Dora. Islands besides, to wit, Pteros, Labaris, Covoris and Sambracate, with a towne so named also in the firme land. On the South side many Islands there be, but the greatest of them all is Camari. Then you have the river Mysecros, the haven Leupas, and the Sabæans called Scenitæ, for that they live under tabernacles and tents. Moreover, many other Islands. The cheefest mart or town of merchandise in those parts is Acila, where the merchants use to embarke for their voiage into India. Then followeth the region Amithoscutia, and Damnia. The Mizians, both the greater and the lesse: the Drimutians and Macæ. A Promontorie of theirs is overagainst Carmania, & distant from it 50 miles. A wonderous thing is reported to have been there done, and that is this: that Numenus lord deputie under king Antiochus, over Mesena, and generall of his armie, defeited the navie of the Persians in sea fight, and the same day with the opportunitie of the tide returned to land again, and gave their horsemen an overthrow to it: whereupon, in memoriall of a two-fold victorie in one day atchieved, he erected two triumphant trophæes, the one in honour of Iupiter, and the other of Neptune. Far within the deepe sea there lieth another Island called Ogyris, distant from the continent 125 miles, and containing in circuit 112,234 much renowmed for the sepulchre of king Erythra, who was there enterred. Another likewise there is of no lesse account, called Dioscoridu, lying in the sea Azanium, and is from Syagrum, the utmost point or cape of the maine, 280 miles. But to returne to the Continent: there remaine yet not spoken of, the Antarides235 toward the South, as you turne to the mountaines, which continue for seven daies journey over: then these nations, Larendanes, Catabanes, and Gebanites: who have many townes, but the greatest are Nagia and Tamna, with 65 churches or temples within it, whereby a man may know how great it is. From thence you come to a Promontorie: from which to the continent of the Troglodites it is 50 miles. And in those quarters remaine the Toanes, Acchitæ,236 Chatramotitæ, Tomabei, Antidalei, Lexianæ, Agrei, Cerbani, and Sabæi, of all the Arabians for their store of frank-incense most famous, as also for the largenesse of their countrey, reaching from sea to sea. Their townes situate upon the coast of the red sea, are Marane, Marma, Cocolia and Sabatra. Within the firme land are these townes, Nascus, Cardava, Carnus, and Tomala, where the Sabæans keepe their faires and markets for to vent & sell their commodities of incense, myrrhe, and such drugs and spices. One part of them are Atramites, whose capitall citie Sobotale, hath within the walls thereof 60 temples.237 But the roiall citie and cheefe seat of the whole kingdome is Nariaba:238 situate upon a gulfe or arme of the sea that reacheth into the land 94 miles, full of Islands, beautified with sweet odoriferous trees. Upon the Atramites within the maine land joine the Minæi: but the Elamites inhabite the maritime coast, where there standeth a cittie also called Elamitum. To them the Cagulates lie close: and their head towne is Siby,239 which the Greekes name Apate. Then come you to the Arsicodani and Vadei, with a great towne:240 and the Barasei: beyond whom is Lichemia, and the Island Sygaros, into which no dogs will come willingly: and if any be put there, they will never lin wandering about the shore untill they die. In the farthest part of the abovesaid gulfe are the Leanites, whereof the gulfe tooke the name Leanites. Their head citie and roiall seat is Agra: but the cittie Leana, or as others would have it, Ælana, is situate upon the very gulfe. And hereuopn our writers have called that arme of the sea Ælaniticum, others Ælenaticum; Artemidorus, Aleniticum; and king Iuba, Læniticum. Arabia is reported to take in circuit from Charax to Leana, 4870 myles:241 but Iuba thinketh it somewhat lesse than 4000. Widest it is in the North parts betweene the townes Herous and Chrace. Now it remaineth that wee speake of other parts within the midland thereof. Upon the Nabatæi, the Thimaneans doe border, after the description of the old Geographers: but at this day, the Tavenes, Suellenes, and Saracenes242: their principall towne is Arra, wherein is the greatest trafficke and resort of merchants.243 Moreover, the Hemnates244 and Analites, whose townes are Domada and Erage: also the Thamusians, with their towne Badanatha: the Carreans, and their towne Chariati: the Achoali, and a citie of theirs Phoda. Furthermore, the Minæi, descended as some thinke from Minos king of Crete: whose citie Charmæi hath 14 miles in compasse. Other towns likewise be there standing afarre off, and namely, Mariaba, Baramalacum, a towne ywis of no meane account: likewise Carnon, and Ramaei, who are thought to come from Rhadamanthus the brother of Minos. Over and besides, the Homerites, with their towne Massala: the Hamirei, Gedranitæ, Anapræ, Ilisanitæ, Bochilitæ, Sammei, and Amathei; with these towns, Nessa and Cennesseri. The Zamanenes, with these townes, Saiace, Scantate, and Bacasmani: the towne Rhiphearma, which in the Arabian tongue signifieth Barley:245 also the Antei, Rapi, Gyrei, and Marhatæi. The Helmadenes, with the towne Ebode. The Agarturii in the mountaines, having a towne 20 miles about, wherein is a fountaine called Emischabales, that is as much to say, as The camels town. Ampelone, a colonie of the Milesians: the town Actrida: and the people Calingij, whose towne is named Mariaba, as much as to say, Lords of all. Townes moreover, Pallon and Murannimal, neere unto a river, by which men thinke that Euphrates springeth and breaketh forth above ground. Other nations besides, namely, Agrei and Ammonij; with a towne, Athenæ: and the Gauranni, which signifieth, Most rich in droves of cattaile. Then the Caranites, Cæsanes, and Choanes. There were sometime also certaine townes in Arabia, held by Greekes, and namely, Arethusa, Larissa, and Chalcis, which all in the end came to ruine and were destroyed in divers and sundrie warres. The only man among the Romans untill this day that warred in those parts, was Ælius Gallus a knight of Rome. As for Caius Cæsar the sonne of Augustus the Emperour, he did but looke onely into Arabia, and no more: but Gallus wasted townes that were not once named by Authors that wrate before, namely, Egra, Annestum, Elsa, Magusum, Tamuracum, Laberia, and the above-named Marieba, which was in circuit sixe miles about: likewise Caripeta, the farthest that he went unto. As for all other matters, he made report unto the Senate of Rome, according as he had found and discovered those parts, to wit, that the Nomades live of milke and venison:246 the rest of the Arabians presse wine, like as the Indians doe, out of dates; and oyle of Sesama, a kind of graine or pulse in those countries. That the Homerites country of all others is most populous and replenished with people: the Minæans have plenteous and fruitfull fields, full of date trees and goodly hortyards stored with all sorts of fruit; but their principall riches lyeth in cattaile. The Cembanes and Arians are good warriours and martiall men, but the Chatramotites that way excell all the rest. The Caræans have the largest territories and most fertile fields for corne. As for the Sabæans, their wealth standeth most upon their woods and trees, that bring forth the sweet gummes of frankincense and myrrhe: also in mines of gold: having water at commaundement to refresh their lands, and plentie besides of honey and waxe. As concerning the sweet odours and spices that come from thence, wee will speake thereof in a severall booke by it selfe.247 The Arabians weare mitres or turbants ordinarily upon their heads, or else go with their haire long and never cut it: as for the beards, them they shave, save only on their upper lip, which they let grow still: and yet some there be of them that suffer their beards to grow long and never cut them. But this one thing I marveile much at, that being such an infinite number of nations as they be, the one halfe of them live by robberie and theeving, howsoever the other live by trafficke and merchandise. Take them generally, they be exceeding rich; for with them the Romans and Parthians leave exceeding summes of gold and silver, for the commodities out of their woods and seas which they sell unto them; but they themselves buy nothing of them againe. Now will wee speake of the other coast opposite unto Arabia. Timosthenes hath set downe, that the whole gulfe or arme of the sea called Red, was from one end to the other foure daies sailing: and from side to side, two dayes: that the streights of the firth were seven miles over.248 But Eratosthenes saith, that taking the measure at the very mouth, it is every way 1300 miles.249
The gulfe of the Red Sea: likewise of the Trogloditick and Æthiopian Seas.
Artemidorus avoucheth, that the Red Sea toward Arabia side, is 1400 miles and fiftie: but on the coast of the Troglodites 1182, until you come to the citie Ptolemais.250 Most Geographers have set downe the breadth thereof to be 462 miles: and that the mouth of it, where it openeth wide, full against sun-rising in winter, [i. Southwest] some say, is 7 miles broad; and others 12. As for the positure and situation thereof, thus it lyeth: Beyond the braunch or arme thereof called Ælaniticus, there is another creeke which the Arabians call Æant, upon which standeth the towne Heroon. In old time there was a citie called Cambisu, betweene the Nelians and Marchandians, into which the sicke and feeble soldiers of our armie were conveyed, as to a place of retreat and repose. Beyond which, you enter into the land of Tyra: and there is the port Daneon to be seene, from which Sesostris a king of Ægypt, was the first that imagined and devised to draw one arme of it with a channell navigable, into Nilus, in that part where it runneth to the place called Delta, and that for 62 miles space, which is betweene the said river and the red sea. This enterprise of his was followed by Darius king of the Persians: yea and by Ptolomæus king of Ægypt, second of that name, who made a channell 100 foot over, and thirtie deepe, for 37 miles in length and an halfe, even to the bitter fountaines. But this dessigne was interrupted and the ditch went no farther, for fear of a general deluge and inundation: for found it was, that the red sea lay above the land of Ægypt three cubits. Some alledge not that to be the cause, but this,namely, That if the sea were let into Nilus, the sweet water thereof (whereof they drinke onely and of none else) should be corrupted thereby and marred. Yet neverthelesse, although this work went not forward, the way is well beaten all the countrey over betweene the Red sea and the Ægyptian, for trafficke: and three severall ordinarie waies there are betweene: one from Pelusium over the sands; where, unles there be reeds set up pitched in the ground to give guidance and direction, there would no path be found, for ever and anon the wind bloweth the sand over the tracts of mens feet and covereth all. A second beginneth two miles251 beyond the mountaine Casius, which after 60 miles commeth into the former Pelusiacke way. (Upon this great rode way, the Arabians called Autei, doe inhabite.) The third taketh his head and beginning at Gereum, which they call Adipson, and holdeth on through the said Arabians, and is 60 miles neerer way, but full of craggie hills and altogether without waters. All these foresaid wayes lead to the citie Arsinoë, built upon the gulfe Charandra by Ptolomæus Philadelphus, and bare his sisters name: and verily hee was the first that discovered those parts, and searched narrowly into the region Trogloditicum: and the river that passeth by Arsinoë, hee called Ptolomæus. Within a little of this place, there is a little towne named Ænnum; for which, some there be that write, Philotera. Beyond them, are the Azarei: Arabians of the wilder sort and halfe Troglodites, by reason they marrie their wives from out of the Troglodites countrey. Beeing past these coasts, you shall find the Ilands Sapyrene and Scytala: and within a little thereof, deserts untill you come to Myos-hormos, where there is a fountaine called Taduos,252 the mount Eos, the Island Lambe,253 many havens besides, and Berenice a towne, bearing the name of the mother to K. Ptolomæus Philadelphus, to which there is a way lying from Coptos, as we have said: and last of all, the Arabians called Autei, and Gnebadei. Now it remaineth to speake of the region Trogloditicum, which the auncient men of old time called Michoë, and others Midoë: and therein standeth the mountaine Pentedactylos. Upon the coast of this countrey, there lye to be seene certaine Islands called Stenæ-deiræ; and others no fewer in number, named Halonnesi: also Cardamine, and Topazos, which Iland gave the name to the precious stone called the Topaze. Then come you to an arme of the sea betweene two lands, full of petie Islands, whereof that which is called Mareu, is well served with water sufficient: another, Eratonos, is altogither drie and unprovided of fresh water. These Islands took name of two captaines and govenors there under the king. Withinforth farther into the firme land, inhabite the Candei, whome they call Ophiophagi, becaue they are wont to feed on serpents: and in truth there is not another countrey that breeds them more than it. King Iuba, who seemeth to have taken great paines in the diligent perusing and discovery of these parts, omitted in all this tract (unlesse there be some fault and defect in them that copied out his first originall) to speake of a second citie named Berenice, with the addition of Panchrysos;254 as also of a third called Epidires, and yet renowmed it is in regard of the place whereupon it is seated: for situate it is upon a knap of land bearing far into the Red sea, even where the mouth of it is not above 4 miles and an halfe,255 from Arabia. Within the prospect of this tract there is the Island Cytis, which also bringeth forth good store of the Topaze stones. Beyond this quarter, nothing but woods and forrests, where king Ptolomæus surnamed Philadelphus built the citie Ptolemais, onely for to chase and hunt the Elephant, neere to the lake Monoleus; and in regard of his game there, he named it Epi-theras. This is the verie countrey mentioned by me in the second booke:256 wherein for 45 days before mid-summer or the entrance of the sunne into Cancer, and as many after, by the sixt houre of the day, that is to say, about noone, no shadowes are to be seene: which being once past, all the day after they fall into the South. As for the other dayes of the yeere besides, they shew into the North: whereas in that citie Berenice which wee mentioned first, upon the very day onely of the Sun-steed, at the sixt houre or noon-tide, the shadowes are cleane gone and none to be seene (for otherwise there is no alteration at all to be observed throughout the yeere) for the space of 600 miles257 all about Ptolemais. A strange and notable thing worth observation, that it should be so but in one hour all the yeere long, and a matter that gave great light and direction to the world, yea and ministred occasion to a singular invention and subtill conclusion: for Eratosthenes upon this undoubted argument and demonstration of the diversitie of shadowes, set in hand hereupon to take the measure of the whole globe of the earth, and put it downe in writing to all posteritie. Beyond this citie Ptolemais, the sea chaungeth his name and is called Azanium; over which the cape sheweth it selfe, which some have written by the name of Hispalus: also, anon appeareth the lake Mandalum, and in it the Island Colocasitis: but in the deepe sea many more, wherein are taken many tortoises. Farther upon this coast is the town Suchæ, and then you may discover in the sea the Island Daphnis, and the citie Aduliton, built by certaine Ægyptian slaves258 who ran away from their masters and tooke no leave: and verily this is the greatest and most frequented mart towne of all the Troglodites countrey, and put the Ægyptians to them:259 and it is from Ptolemais 5 daies sailing. Thither is brought great store of Ivorie, or the Elephants tooth, and of the horne of the Rhinoceros: there may a man have plentie of Sea-horse hides,260 of tortoise shelles, of little monkies or marmosets: there also a man may be sped with bondslaves. A little beyond are the Æthiopians, called Aroteres: also the Islands named Aliæa:261 and besides them other islands, namely, Bacchias, Antibacchias, and Stratonis:262 being past them, there is a gulfe in the coast of Æthiopia, as yet not discovered or knowne by any name: a thing that may make us marveile much, considering that our merchants search into farther corners than so. Also a promontorie, wherein there is a fountaine of fresh water named Curios,263 much desired of the sailers that passe that way, and in great respect for the refreshing that it yeeldeth unto them: beyond it, the harbor or port of Isis, distant from the town of the Adulites abovesaid, 10 daies rowing with ores: and thither is the Troglodites myrrhe brought and there laid up. Before this haven, there lye in the sea two Islands, named Pseudopylæ: and as many farther within, called Pylæ: in the one of them be certaine pillars of stones, engraven with straunge and unknowne letters. When you are past this haven, you come to an arme of the sea called Abalites: within it is the Island Diodori, and other lying desert and unpeopled. Also along the continent, there is much wildernesse: but being past them, you come to the towne Gaza: the promontorie also and port Mossylites, unto which store of cynamon and canell is brought. Thus farre marched king Sesostris with his armie. Some writers make mention of one towne more in Æthiopia beyond all this, upon the sea side, called Baradaza.264 King Iuba would have the Atlantick sea to begin at the promontorie or cape above named, Mossylites: on which sea (as he saith) a man may saile very well with a West-northwest wind, by the coasts of his kingdoms of Mauritania or Maroccho, as farre as to the coasts of Gilbraltar called Gades: and sure he speaketh so confidently therof, as I will not altogither discredit his resolution in this behalfe.265 From a promontorie of the Indians called Lepteacra, and by others Drepanum, unto the Isle of Malchu, he saith plainly, that by a straight and direct course it is 15 hundred miles, and never reckon those parts that are burnt with the sunne.266 From thence to a place called Sceneos, he affirmeth it is 225 miles: and from it to the Island Sadanum,267 150 miles: and thus by this meanes hee concludeth, that in all, to the open and known sea, it is 1885 miles.268 But all other writers besides him were of opinion, that there could not possibly be any sailing upon it, for the exceeding heat of the sunne. Over and besides, the Arabians named Ascitæ, doe much harme and annoyance from out of the Islands which they hold, unto merchants that trafficke that way: for these Arabians, according as their name doth import, couple bottles made of good oxe leather, two by two together, and going upon them with ease as if it were a bridge under them, scoure the seas, and shooting their empoysoned arrowes, practise pyracie, to the great losse and mischiefe of merchants and sailers. The same Iuba writeth moreover, that there be certaine people of the Troglodites, named Therothoes, for their hunting of wild beasts, of their exceeding and wonderfull swiftnesse in chasing of Deere upon land: as the Ichthyophgi for coursing of fish in the sea, swimming as naturally as if they were water creatures. Moreover, hee nameth other nations in those parts, as the Bargeni, Zageres, Chalybes, Saxinæ, Syreces, Daremes and Domazanes. Furthermore, hee affirmeth, that the people inhabiting along the sides of Nilus from Syene unto Meroë, are not Æthyopians, but Arabians, who for to seeke fresh water, approched Nilus, and there dwelt: as also that the citie of the Sunne, which we said before in the description of Ægypt,269 standeth not far from Memphis, was first founded and built by the Arabians.270 Contrariwise, other Geographers there bee, who affirme, that the farther side or banke of Nilus is no part of Æthyopia, and they lay it as a dependant annexed to Affrick. But be it as will be, I will not greatly busie my head thereabout, but suffer every man to abound in his owne sence, and have his own way: only I will content my selfe with this, to set downe the townes on both sides thereof, in that order as they are declared unto mee. And first to begin with that side toward Arabia: after you are past Syene, enter you shall upon the countrey of the Catadupi, and so forward into the land of the Syenites. Wherein these townes stand in order as followeth: Tacompson, which some have called Thatice,271 Aranium[,] Sesanium, Sandura, Nasandum,272 Anadoma, Cumara, Beda and Bochiana,273, Leuphithorga, Tantarene, Machindira, Noa, Gophoa, Gystatæ, Megeda, Lea, Rhemnia, Nupsia, Direa, Patara, Bagada, Dumana, Rhadata, wherein a golden cat is worshipped as a god. Boron in the midland part of the continent, and Mallos, the next towne to Meroë. Thus hath Bion digested and set them downe. But king Iuba hath raunged them otherwise in this manner. First, Megatichos, a towne situate upon a hill between Ægypt and Æthyopia, which the Arabians use to call Myrson: next to it Tacompson: then Aranium, Sesanium, Pide, Mamuda, and Corambis: neere unto it a fountaine of liquid Bitumen: Hammodara, Prosda, Parenta, Mama, Thessara, Gallæ, Zoton, Graucome, Emetum, Pidibotæ, Hebdomecontacometæ, and the Nomades, who ordinarily are encamped under tents and pavilions. Cyste, Pemma, Gadagale, Palois, Primmis, Nupsis, Daselis, Patis, Gambrenes, Magases, Segasimala, Cranda, Denna, Cadeuma, Thena, Batha, Alana, Macum, Scammos, and Gora within an Island. Beyond which, Abala, Androcalis, Seres, Mallos and Agoce. Now for Affricke side, they are in this wise reckoned. First, Tacompsos, according to the others name, or a parcell rather of the former: then, Magora, Sea, Edosa, Pelenaria, Pyndis, Magusa, Bauma, Linitima, Spyntuma, Sydopta, Gensoa, Pinidicitora, Eugo, Orsima, Suasa, Maunia, Rhuma, Urbubuma, Mulona, which town the Greeks were wont to call, Hypaton: Pagoargas, Zanones, & there begin the Elephants to come in, Mamblia, Berresa, Cetuma. There was moreover a town sometime named Epis, situate against Meroë: but rased it was and utterly destroied before that Bion wrote his Geographie. See what citties and towns of name were recorded in times past to have ben in those parts, untill you come to the Isle Meroë. And yet at this day there is neither sticke nor stone to be found of any of them in a manner, on neither side. Only deserts and a vast wildernesse in steed of them, by report made unto Nero the Emperour by the Prætorian souldiours, sent thither from him under the leading of a Tribune or Colonell, to discover those quarters of Æthyopia, and to relate accordingly: at what time as amongst other his dessignes, that prince intended an expedition with his armie against the Æthyopians.274 And yet before his time, even in the daies of Augustus Cæsar of happie memorie, the Romanes pierced thither with a power of armed men under the conduct of Pub. Petronius,275 a knight of Rome, and governour of Ægypt, deputed by the said Emperour. Where he forced by assault and conquered all those townes in Æthyopia which he then found standing, in this order following: namely, Pselcis, Primis, Abaccis, Phthuris, Cambusis, Attena, Stadisis, where the river Nilus runneth downe with such a mightie fall, that with the noise thereof the inhabitants there by, loose their hearing and become deafe. Besides these hee woon also and sacked Napata. And albeit he marched forward still a great way into the countrey, even 870 myles beyond Syene, yet this Romane armie of his laid not all wast in those parts, and left the countrie so desert as now it is. No, no: It was the Ægyptians warres and not the Romanes that gave the wast to Æthyopia:276 and albeit sometimes it woon and otherwhiles lost; one time bare the scepter and ruled, another time underwent the yoke, and were subdued: yet was it of great name in the world and puissant, untill the reigne of king Memnon, who ruled at the time of the Trojane war: yea, and Syria was subject unto it, as also the coast of our sea in king Cepheus daies, as appeareth by the fabulous tales that goe as touching Andromeda.277 Semblably, the Geographers varie and disagree much about the measure and dimension of Æthyopia. And first of all others, Dalion, albeit he passed farre beyond Meroë: after him, Aristocreon, Bion, and Basilis. As for Simonides (the younger and the later writer) had sojourned in Meroë five yeeres, when he wrot of Æthyopia. For Timosthenes the Admirall of Ptolomæus Philadelphus his navie, hath left in record, that from Syene to Meroë is 60 daies journey, without any particularizing of the measure by miles. But Eratosthenes precisely noteth, that it is 625 miles. Artemidorus but 600. Sebostus affirmeth, That from the frontiers of Ægypt it is 1675 miles. From whence, the last rehearsed writers count forward but 1270.278 But all this difference and dispute about this point, is lately determined & ended by the report of those travellers whom Nero sent of purpose to discover those countries: and they made relation of the truth upon their certaine knowledge, that it is 874 miles279 from Syene in this manner particularly by journies. Namely, from the said Syene to Hiera Sycaminon 54 miles: from thence to Tama 75 miles. From Tama to the Euonymites countrey, the first of all the Æthyopians,280 120. Forward to Acina 54. To Pitara 25. To Tergedum 106 miles. Where by the way it is to be noted, that in the middest of this tract lieth the Island Gagandus:281 where they began first to have a sight of the birds called Parrats: and beyond another Island in the same way which is called Artigula, they might see monkies and marmosets: but being once beyond Tergedum, they met with the beasts Cynocephali. From thence to Napata 80 miles: this is the only little towne among all the rest beforenamed.282 From which to the Island Meroë is 360 miles. They reported moreover, that about Meroë (& not before) the grasse and hearbes appeared fresh and greene; yea, and the woods shewed somewhat in comparison of all the way besides; and that they espied the tracts of Elephants and Rhinocerotes where they had gone. As for the towne it selfe Meroë, they said it was within the Island from the very entrie therof 70 miles: & that just by, there was another Island called Tatu, which yeelded a bay or haven to land at for them that took the arme and channell of Nilus on the right hand. As for the building within Meroë, there were but few houses in it: that the Isle was subject unto a ladie or queene named Candace, a name that for many yeeres alreadie went from one queene to another successively. Within this towne there is the temple of great holinesse and devotion in the honour of Iupiter Hammon: and in all that tract many other chappels. Finally, so long as the Æthyopians swaied the scepter and reigned, this Island was much renowmed and very famous. For by report, they were wont to furnish the Æthyopian king with armed men 250000, & to maintain of Artisanes 400000. Last of all there have been counted 45 kings of the Æthyopians, and so it is reported at this day.
The manifold, strange, and wonderfull formes and shapes of men.
All Æthyopia in generall was in old time called Ætheria:283 afterwards Atlantia: and finally of Vulcanes sonne Æthiops, it tooke the name Æthyopia. No wonder it is, that about the coasts thereof there be found both men and beasts of strange and monstrous shapes, considering the agilitie of the Sunnes fierie heat, so strong and powerfull in those countries, which is able to frame bodies artificially of sundrie proportions, and to imprint and grave in them divers formes. Certes, reported it is, that far within the countrey Eastward there are a kind of people without any nose at all on their face, having their visage all plain and flat. Others again without any upper lip, and some tonguelesse. Moreover, there is a kind of them that want a mouth, framed apart from their nosethrils: and at one and the same hole, and no more taketh in breath, receiveth drinke by drawing it in with an oaten straw, yea, and after the same manner feed themselves with the graines of oates, growing of the owne accord without mans labour and tillage for their onely food. And others there be, who in steed of speech and words, make signes, as well with nodding their heads, as moving their other members. There are also among them, that before the time of Ptolomæus Lathyrus king of Ægypt, knew no use at all of fire. Furthermore, writers there bee, who have reported, that in the countrey neere unto the meeres and marishes from whence Nilus issueth, there inhabite those little dwarfes called Pygmei. But to returne againe to the utmost coasts of Æthyopia, where we left: there is a continuall raunge and course of mountaines all red like fire, as if they were ever burning. Moreover, beyond Meroë there is a countrey lying above the Troglodites and the red sea: where, after you be three daies journey from Napata toward the coast of the said red sea, you shall find that in most places they save raine water for their ordinarie use to drinke, and otherwise: all the countrey betweene is very plenteous and full of gold mines. All beyond this region is inhabited by the Atabuli, a people also of Æthyopia. As for the Megabares, whom some have named Adiabares, they lie against Meroë, and have a towne bearing the name of Apollo. Among them are certain Nomades encamping under tents and tabernacles, who live of Elephants flesh.284 Iust against them in a part of Affricke are the long living Macrobians. Againe, being past the Megabarenes, you come unto the Memnones & Daveli: and 20 daies journey from them, to the Critenses. Beyond whom you meet with the Dochi, and the Gymnetes who are ever naked. Soone after you shall find the Anderæ, Mathitæ, Mesagebes, Hipporeæ, who be all over blacke, and therefore they colour and paint their bodies with a kind of red chalke or rudle called Rubrica.285 But upon the coast of Affricke are the Medimni. Beyond whom you shal come to another sort of Nomades living under tents, who feed of no other thing but the milke of certaine creatures headed like dogs, called Cynocephali: also to the Olabi and Syrbotæ, who are reported to be eight cubites high. Moreover, Aristocreon saith, That on Libya side, five daies journey from Meroë, there is a towne called Tole: and 12 daies journey from thence, there standeth Esar, a towne built by the Ægyptians, who fled thither to avoid the crueltie and tyrannie of king Psammeticus. And reported it is, that the Ægyptians held it for 300 yeeres. Also, that the same fugitives founded the towne Daron on the contrarie side in the coast of Arabia. But that which Aristocreon nameth Esar, Bion called Sapa, and saith withall, that the very word Sapa signifieth in the Æthyopian language, strangers or aliens come from other parts. Hee affirmeth besides, that their capitall citie is within an Island, Sembobitis, and that Sai within Arabia, is the third citie of that nation. Now betweene the mountaines and the river Nilus, are the Symbarians and the Phalanges:286 but upon the very hils live the Asachæ, who have many other nations under them: and they are by report seven daies journey from the sea. They live upon the venison of Elephants flesh, which they use commonly to hunt and chase. As for the Island within Nilus, of the Semberrites, it is subject to a queen. And eight daies journey from thence lieth the country of the Æthyopians, named Nubæi. Their cheefe town Tenupsis is seated upon the river Nilus. Beyond the Nubians, you enter upon the countrey of the Sambri: where all the foure-footed beasts, yea, even the very Elephants, are without eares. Upon the coast of Affricke inhabite the Ptoeambati and Ptoeamphanæ: who have a dog for their king, and him they obey, according to the signs which he maketh by moving the parts of his bodie, which they take to be his commaundements, and religiously they doe observe them. Their head citie is Auruspi, farre distant from Nilus. Beyond them are the Achisarmi, Phaliges, Marigeri, and Casamarri. Bion affirmeth, That beyond Psembobitis, there bee other townes in the Islands of that coast, toward Meroë, all the way as you passe for 20 daies journey. The towne of the next Island is Semberritarum, under the queene: likewise another called Asar. Also there is a second Island having in it the towne Daron: a third which they call Medoe, wherein standeth the towne Asel: and a fourth named Garode, like as the towne also. Then along the bankes of Nilus are many townes, to wit, Navos, Modunda, Andabis, Setundum, Colligat, Secande, Navectabe, Cumi, Agrospi,287 Ægipa, Candrogari, Araba, and Summara. The region above Sirbithim, where the mountaines doe end, is reported to have upon the sea coast certaine Æthyopians called Nisicastes and Nisites, that is to say, men with three or foure eies apeece: not for that they are so eied indeed, but because they are excellent archers, & have a speciall good eie in aiming at their mark, which lightly they will not misse. Bion affirmeth moreover, That from that clime of the heaven which beareth above the greater Syrtes, & bendeth toward the South Ocean sea, they be called Dalion, to wit, the Cisorians and Longopores, who drinke and use raine water onely.288 And beyond Oecalices for five daies journie, the Usibalks, Isuelians, Pharuseans, Valians and Cispians. All the rest are nothing but deserts not inhabited. But then he telleth fabulous and incredible tales of those countries.289 Namely, that Westward there are people called Nigroe, whose king hath but one eie, and that in the mids of his forehead. Also he talketh of the Agriophagi, who live most of panthers and lions flesh. Likewise of the Pomphagi,290 who eat all things whatsoever. Moreover, of the Anthropophagi, that feed of mens flesh. Futhermore, of the Cynamolgi, who have heads like dogs.291 Over and besides, the Artabatites who wander and goe up and downe in the forrests like fourefooted savage beasts. Beyond whom, as hee saith, bee the Hesperij, and Peroesi, who, as we said before,292 were planted in the confines of Mauritania. In certain parts also of Æthyopia the people live of locusts onely, which they pouder with salt, and hang up in smoke to harden, for their yeerly provision, and these live not above 40 yeers at the most. Finally, Agrippa saith that all Æthyopia, and take the land with it of Prester Iehan293 bordering upon the red sea, containeth in length 2170 miles: & in breadth, together with the higher Ægypt, 1291.294 Some geographers have taken the breadth in this maner. From Meroë to Sirbitum, 12 daies journie upon Nilus: from thence to the countrie of the Davillians another 12, and from them to the Æthyopian Ocean 6 daies. But in general al writers in a maner do resolve upon this, that between the Ocean and Meroë it is 725 miles:295 and from thence to Syene, as much as we have set down before.296 As for the positure and situation of Æthiopia, it lieth Southeast and Southwest. In the Meridian South parts thereof, there be great woods of Ebene especially, alwaies greene. Toward the mids of this region, there is a mightie high mountain looking over the sea, that burneth continually, which the Greeks call Theon-ochema, that is to say, the chariot of the gods: from the which it is counted foure daies journey by sea to the promontorie or cape called § Hesperion Ceras, which confineth upon Africke, neere to the Hesperian Æthiopians. Some writers hold, that this tract is beautified with pretie little hils, and those pleasantly clad and garnished with shadowie groves, wherein the Ægipanes and Satyres doe converse.
The Ilands in the Æthiopian sea.
Ephorus, Eudoxus, and Timosthenes, do all agree in this, that there be very many Islands in all that sea. Clitarchus witnesseth, that report was made to Alexander the Great, of one above the rest, which was so rich and well monyed, that for an ordinarie horse the inhabitants would not sticke to give a talent of gold: also of another, wherein was found a sacred hill adorned with a goodly wood upon it, where the trees distilled and dropped sweet water of a wonderfull odoriferous smell. Moreover, full against the Persian gulfe, lyeth the Island named Cerne, opposite unto Æthiopia, but how large it is, or how farre off it beareth into the sea from the continent, is not certainly knowne: this onely is reported, that the Æthiopians and none but they, are the inhabitants thereof. Ephorus writeth, that they who would saile thither from the red sea, are not able for extreame heat to passe beyond certaine columnes or pillars, for so they call the little Islands there. Howbeit Polybius avoucheth, that this Island Cerne where it lyeth in the utmost coast of the Mauritanian sea over-against the mountaine Atlas, is but 8 stadia from the land. And Cornelius Nepos affirmeth, that likewise it is not above a mile from the land, overagainst Carthage: and besides, that it is not above two miles in circuit. There is mention made also by Authors, of another Iland before the said mountaine Atlas, named also thereupon Atlantis. And five daies sailing from it, appeare the deserts of the Æthiopian Hesperians, together with the foresaid cape, which we named Hesperion-Ceras, where the coasts of the land begin first to turne about their forefront to wind Westward, and regard the Atlanticke sea. Iust over-against this cape, as Xenophon Lampsacenus reporteth, lye the Islands called Gorgates, where somtimes the Gorgones kept their habitation, and two daies sailing they are thought to be from the firme land. Hanno, a great commaunder and generall of the Carthaginians, landed there with an armie: who made this report from thence, That the women were all over their bodies hairie: as for the men, he could not catch one of them, so swift they were of foot that they escaped out of all sight: but he flead two of these Gorgone women and brought away their skinnes, which for a testimoniall of his beeing there, and for a wonder to posteritie, hee hung up in Iunoes temple, where they were seene, untill Carthage was woon and sacked. Beyond these Isles, there are by report, two more discovered, by the name of Hesperides. But so uncertaine are all the intelligences delivered concerning these parts, that Statius Sebosus afirmeth, that it is 40 good daies sailing from the Islands of these Gorgones along the coast of Atlas, unto the Isles of the Hesperides; and from thence to Hesperion-Ceras, but one. As little resolution and certaintie there is, as touching the Islands of Mauritania. In this onely they all jumpe and accord, that king Iuba discovered some few of them over-against the Autolotes, in which hee meant and purposed to die Gætulian purple.
Of the Islands Fortunatæ, or Canarie.
Some Authors there be who thinke, that the Islands Fortunatæ, and certaine others besides them, are beyond the Autolotes: among whome, the same Sebosus above rehearsed was so bold, as to speake of their distances: and namely, that the Island Iunonia is from Gades 750 miles: and that from it Westward, the Isles Pluvialia and Capraria, are as much. Also that in the Iland Pluvialia there is no fresh water, but onely that from which they have by showres of rain. He saith moreover, that from them to the Fortunate Islands are 250 miles; which lye 8 myles from the coast of Mauritania to the left hand, called The coast of the sunne, or Valley of the sunne, for that it is like a valley or hollow levell floore of earth, whereupon also it is called Planaria, resembling an even plaine.297 And in very truth, this valley containeth in circuit 300 miles: wherein are trees to be seene that grow up in height to 144 feet. As for the Islands named Fortunatæ, Iuba learned thus much by diligent inquisition, that they lie from the South neere to the West 625 miles from the Ilands Purpurariæ, where they die purple: so as to come thither, a man must saile 250 miles above the West, and then for 75 miles298 more bend his course Eastward. He saith moreover, that the first of these Islands is called Ombrion, where are to be seene no token or shew at all of houses. Also that among the mountains, it hath a lake or meere: and trees resembling the plant Ferula, out of which they presse water: that which issueth out of the blacke trees of that kind, is bitter; but out of the whiter sort, sweet and potable. As for a second, he writeth that it is named Iunonia, wherin there is one little house or chappel made of stone: beyond it, but neereby, there is a third of the same name, but lesse than the other: and then you come to a fourth called Capraria,299 full of great Lizards. Within a kenning from these, lyeth the Island Nivaria,300 which tooke this name of the snow that lieth there continually; and beides, it is full of mists and fogges. The next to it and last of all, is Canaria, so called by reason of a number of dogges of mightie bignesse; of which king Iuba brought away two: and in this Island there are some markes remaining of buildings which give testimonie that sometime it was inhabited and peopled. And as all these Ilands generally doe abound plentifully in fruitfull trees, and flying foules of all sortes: so this above the rest named Canaria, is replenished with rowes of date trees that beare aboundance of dates, and likewise with pine trees that yeeld store of pine nuts. Furthermore he affirmeth, that there is great plentie of honey in it: that the rivers therein are well stored with fish, and the Sturgeon especially:301 in which there groweth the reed302 Papyrus as ordinarily as in Nilus. Howbeit in conclusion he saith, that these Ilands are much annoyed with great whales and such monsters of the sea, that daily are cast upon the shore, which lye above ground and putrifie like carrion. Thus having at large gone through the description of the globe of the earth, as well without as within, it remaineth now to knit up briefly with the measure and compasse of the seas.
A summarie of the earth, digested according to the dimensions thereof.
Polybius saith, that from the streights of Gilbraltar, unto the very mouth and firth of Moeotis, it is found by a direct and streight course to be 3437 miles and an halfe. Begin there againe, and hold on a right course Eastward to Sicilie, it is 1260 miles and an halfe.303 From thence forward to the Iland Creta, 375 miles: forward to Rhodes, 146 miles and an halfe: to the Chelidoniæ Ilands as much, and so to Cyprus 325 miles: from whence to Seleucia Pieria in Syria, 115 miles. Which particulars being laid together, make by computation the grosse summe of 2340 iles. Howbeit, Agrippa counteth 3440 miles for all this distance above rehearsed, beginning at the streights of Gilbraltar abovesaid, and carrying the length streight forward to the gulfe of Issa. In which reckoning of his, I wot not whether there be an errour in the number, forasmuch as the same writer hath set downe from the streight of Messine in Sicilie to Alexandra in Ægypt, 1250 miles. As for the whole circuit that may be comprehending therein, all the gulfes and creekes before-named, from the same point where we first began, as far as to the lake Moeotis, is 15600 miles. Artemidorus addeth thereto 756 miles. And the same Geographer writeth, that take the lake Moeotis to the rest, all commeth to 17390 miles. Lo, what the measure is of the seas taken by Philosophers and learned men, without armour and weapon in hand; of men I say, who have not feared to hazard themselves boldly and provoke Fortune, in traversing the seas so farre off. Now are we to compare respectively the greatnes of ech part of the world in severall: notwithstanding that I shall find much adoe and difficultie enough therin, considering the disagreement of authors in that behalfe. But most fitly and easily shall this appeare which we seek for, if we join longitude & latitude togither. According to which prescript rule to begin with Europe, it may well contain in largenes 8148 miles.304 Affrick (taking the middle and mean computation between them all that have set it down) containeth in length 3748 miles. As for the breadth of so much as is known and inhabited, in no place where it is widest exceedeth it 250 miles. True it is, that Agrippa would have it to contain 910 miles in breadth, beginning at the bounds of Cyrene, and so comprehending in this measure the deserts thereof as farre as to the Garamants, so far as is known and discovered, and then the whole measure collected into one generall summe, amounteth to 4608 miles. As for Asia, confessed it is and resolved upon by all Geographers, that in length it carrieth 63750 miles: and verily in bredth, (if you account from the Æthiopian sea to Alexandria situate upon Nilus, so as your measure run through Meroë and Syrene) it taketh 1875 miles: whereby it appeareth evidently, that Europe is little wanting of halfe as bigge againe as Asia: and the same Europa, is twise as much againe as all Africa and a sixt part over. Reduce now all these summes together, it will be found cleere, that Europe is a third part of the whole earth, and an eight portion over and somewhat more: Asia a fourth part, with an over-deale of 14: and Africke a fifth part, with an over-plus of a sixtieth portion. To this calculation, we will set to, as it were to boot, one subtill devise and invention more of the Greeks, which sheweth their singular wit (to the end we should omit nothing that may serve our turne in this Geographie of ours) and that is this: After that the positure and site of everie region is knowne and set downe, how a man may likewise come to the knowledge what societie and agreement there is betweene the one and the other, either by length of daies and nights, by the shadow at noone-day, or by the equalitie of climates of the world. To bring this about effectually, I must part and digest the whole earth into certaine sections or even portions, answerable to those in heaven; (whereof there be verie many) which our Astronomers and Mathematicians call Circles, but the Greekes, Parallels.
The division of the earth into Climates or lines Parallele, and equall shadowes.
For to make an equall partition of the world, begin we will at the Meridionall Indians, and go directly as farre as Arabia, and the inhabitants of the red sea. Under this climate are comprised the Gedrosians, Persians, Carmanes, and Elimæans: Parthyene, Aria, Susiane, Mesopotamia, Seleucia surnamed Babylonia, Arabia so farre as Petræ inclusively, Coele-Syria, and Pelusium in Ægypt: the low countries, which are called the tract of Alexandria:305 the maritime coasts of Affricke: all the townes of Cyrenaica, Thapsus, Adrumentum, Clupea, Carthage, Utica, both Hippoes, Numidia, both realmes of Mauritania, the Atlanticke sea, and Hercules pillars. In all the circumference of this climate and parallele, at noone-tide upon an Æquinoctiall day, the style in the diall which they call Gnomon 7 foot long, casteth a shadow not above foure foot. The longest night or day in this climate, is 14 houres: and contrariwise the shortest, ten. The second circle or parallele line, beginneth at the Indians Occidentall, and passeth through the mids of Parthia, Persepolis, the hithermost parts of Persis (in respect of Rome), the hither coast of Arabia,306 Iudæa, and the borders neere unto the mountain Libanus. Under the same are conteined also Babylon, Idumæa, Samaria, Hierusalem, Ascalon, Ioppe, Cæsarea, Phoenice, Ptolemais, Sydon, Tyrus, Berytrus,307 Botrys, Tripolis, Byblus, Antiochia, Laodicea, Seleucia, the sea coasts of Cilicia, Cyprus, the South part of Candie,308, Lilyboeum in Sicilia, the North parts of Affricke and Numidia. The Gnomon in a diall upon the Æquinoctiall day 35 foot of length, makes a shadow 24 foot long. The longest day or night, is 14 houres Æquinoctiall, and the fifth part of an houre. The third circle beginneth at the Indians next unto the mountaine Imaus, and goeth by the Caspian gates or streights hard by Media, Cataonia, Cappadocia. Taurus, Amanus, Issus, the Cilician streights, Soli, Tarsus, Cyprus, Psidia, Syde in Pamphilia, Lycaonia, Patara in Lycia, Xanthus, Caunus, Rhodus, Coüs, Halicarnassus, Gnidus, Doris, Chius, Delus, the mids of the Cyclades, Gytthium, Malea, Argos, Laconia, Elis, Olympia, Messene, Peloponnesus, Syracusa, Catine, the mids of Sicily, the South part of Sardinia, Cardei, and Gades. In this clime the Gnomon of 100 inches, yeeldeth a shadow of 77 inches. The longest day hath Æquinoctiall hours 14 and an halfe, with a thirtieth part over. Under the fourth circle or parallele lye they that are on the other side of Imaus, the South parts of Cappadocia, Galatia, Mysia, Sardis, Smyrna, Sipylus, the mountaine Tmolus in Lydia, Caria, Ionia, Trallis, Colophon, Ephesus, Miletus, Samos, Chios, the Icarian sea, the Islands Cyclades lying Northward, Athens, Megara, Corinth, Sicyon, Achæa, Patræ, isthmos, Epirus, the North parts of Sicilie, §§ Narbonensis Gallia toward the East, the maritime parts of Spaine beyond new Carthage, and so into the West. To a Gnomon of 21 foot, the shadowes answere of 17 foot.309 The longest day is 14 Æquinoctiall houres, and two third parts of an houre. The 5 division conteineth under it, from the entrance of the Caspian sea, Bactra, Iberia, Armenia, Mysia, Phrygia, Hellespontus, Troas, Tenedus, Abydus, Scepsis, Ilium, the hill Ida, Cyzicum, Lampsacum, Sinope, Amisum,310, Heraclea in Pontus, Paphlagonia, Lemnus, Imbrus, Thasus, Cassandria, Thessalia, Macedonia, Larissa, Amphipolis, Thessalonice, Pella, Edessa, Beræa, Pharsaliæ, Carystum, Euboea, Boeotia,311 Chalcis, Delphhi, Acarmania, Ætolia, Apollonia, Brundisium, Tarentum, Thurij, Locri, Rhegium, Lucarni, Naples, Puteoli, the Tuscan sea, Corsica, the Baleare Islands, the middle of Spain. A Gnomon of 7 foot, giveth shadow 6 foot. The longest day is 15 Æquinoctiall houres. The sixt parallele compriseth the citie of Rome, and conteineth withall the Caspian nations, Caucasus, the North parts of Armenia, Apollonia upon Rhindacus, Nicomedia, Nicæa, Chalcedon, Bizantium, Lysimachia, Cherrhonesus, the gulfe Melane, Abdera, Samothracia, Maronea, Ænus, Bessica, the midland parts of Thracia, Poeonia, the Illyrians, Dyrrhachium, Canusium, the utmost coasts of Apulia,312 Campania, Hetruria, Pisæ, Luna, Luca, Genua, Liguria, Antipolis, Massilia, Narbon, Tarracon, the middle of Spaine called Tarraconensis, and so through Lusitania. To a Gnomon of 9 foot, the shadow is answerable 8 foot. The longest day hath 14 Æquinoctiall houres, and the ninth part of an houre, or the fifth as Nigidius is of opinion. The 7 division beginneth at the other coast of the Caspian sea, and falleth upon Callatis, Bosphorus, Borysthenes, Tomos, the backe parts of Thracia, the Tribals countrey, the rest of Illyricum, the Adriaticke sea, Aquileia, Altinum, Venice, Vicetia, Patavium,313 Verona, Cremona, Ravenna, Ancona, Picenum, Marsi, Peligni, Sabini, Umbria, Ariminum, Bononia, Placentia, Mediolanum, and all beyond Apenninum: also over the Alpes, Aquitane in Gaule, Vienna, Pyrenæum, and Celtiberia. The Gnomon of 35 foot, casteth a shadow 36 foot in length; yet so, as in some part of the Venetian territorie, the shadow is equall to the Gnomon. The longest day is 15 Æquinoctiall houres, and three fift parts of an houre. Hitherto have we reported the labours in this point of auncient Geographers, and what they have reported. But the most diligent and exactest moderne writers that followed, have assigned the rest of the earth not as yet specified, to three other sections or climates. The first, from Tanais through the lake Moeotis and the Sarmatians, unto Borysthenes, and so by the Dakes314 and a part of Germanie, conteining therein Fraunce, and the coasts of the Ocean, where the day is sixteene houres long. A second, through the Hyperboreans and Britaine, where the day is 17 hours long. Last of all is the Scythian parallele, from the Rhiphean hills into Thule: wherein (as we said315) it is day and night continually by turnes (for sixe moneths.) The same writers have set down two parallele circles, before those points where the other began, and which we set downe. The one through the Islands Meroë and Ptolemais upon the red sea, built for the hunting of Elephants, where the longest daies are but 12 houres and an halfe: the second passing through Syrene316 in Ægypt, where the day hath 13 houres. And the same Authours have put to every one of the other circles, even to the very last, halfe an houre more to the daies length, than the old Geographers.
Thus much of the Earth.
The running title is "The sixth Booke of // Plinies Naturall Historie. "
1. Cf. Ammianus Pontus Periplus, τὸν Πόντον τὸν πρὶν Ἄξενον λεγόμενον διὰ τὰς ἐπιϑέσεις τῶν βαρβάρων etc.
* Mouth of Gibraltar. [Holland has misread his text, or the printer made a goof; this should be Calpe.]
2. Rhesus: wrongly. ῾Ρῆβας in the Periplus. Festus Avienus in descript. Orbis Terrae:
... propter Bithynia glebam exerit: hic late Rhebas extenditur amnis, Rhebas, coeanei qui dissicit aequora ponti, Rhebas, argento similem qui porrigit undam. hi pontum cingunt populi. nunc illa canatur ora Asiae, glaucus pelagi quam subluit aestus, axe noti in fauces rapidi procul Hellesponti ...
3. Psillis: Chifflet's emendation of the textual Syris, out of Ptolemy V.1 (Ψίλλις, Ψίλις) and Strabo XII.3.7 (Ψίλλης).
4. Hole or cave Acherusia: Pliny's specus, a cave or chasm, as we would say. Cf. Pomponius Mela I.19: "Juxta specus est Acherusia, Ad Manes (ut aiunt) pervius; atque inde extractum Cerberum existimant".
5. Pedopiles: following the reading of early editions (out of Chifflet) Paedopiles instead of the textual Paedopides (or Pedopyles in some editions).
6. Sonantes: thus all editions; a typographical error or misreading of Sonautes, itself a contraction of Soonautes (Σοωναύτης Sownau/thj). Holland, or his printer, frequently misreads n for u.
7. Billis: thus all editions. I.e., the Βίλλαιος (or Βἴλαιος).
8. Pylæmerina sc. Pylaemanin.
9. 315 miles: following the (unnecessary) emendation of Dalechamps rather than the textual 325.
10. Gazima, and Gazelum: the text is difficult here. Mayhoff reads oppidum Caturia Gazelum.
11. Halyto: sc. Halys. Now called the Kizil Irmak.
12. Eupatoria ... Mithradates: Mithridates VI ("the Great"), whose surname was Eupator. On Pompey, see Book VII.
13. Cammaneum: sc. Cammaneni.
14. Triarius ... Cæsar: A mistranslation. "Noble for the army of Triarius and the victory of Caesar." Caesar defeated the armies of Pharnaces at Zela about 47 (the famous "veni, vidi, vici" battle); Triarius had been routed by Mithridates there in about 67. See Plutarch, Life of Caesar. On Triarius, see Plutarch, Life of Lucullus; cf. Cassius Dio, Book 36.
15. Manteium: Matium in the text. Hermolaus Barbarus suggested the emendation to Manteium (quasi μαντεῖον, "the seat of an oracle"?).
16. Mossynians, etc.: cf. Pomponius Mela, I.95 ff. Pliny does not specify how they marked their bodies, only that they were marked; the branding is Holland's interpolation, probably incorrect; these would seem to be tattoos.
17. 220 myles: the text has 120.
18. 150 miles: Holland follows Dalechamps' emendation rather than the textual 140.
19. Tyritaum: taking Hermolaus's Tyritacen for the text of the various mss., tindarida circaeum or tindaridaceum (etc.). Most editors now follow the reading of Hardouin, Tyndarida, Circæum, Cygnum.
20. Cyanos: Dalechamps emends to Cyaneos from Ptolemy and Stephanus. Hardouin points out that the name of the first comes from its rapidity, like horses running; that of the second comes from the color of the river, which seems more reasonable.
21. From Bsarus 75 miles: Reading a bsarro LXXV (with Dalechamps and/or Hermolaus?); the correct figure is 70 miles, and the text is (probably) ab Absarro.
22. Phthirophagoi: i.e., Φθειροφάγοι, on its face "lice-eaters" but possibly "eaters of fir cones".
23. said before: in Book V, Sect. 98 (Latin, V.98).
24. 80 miles: thus Dalechamps. Most editions and the better manuscripts, 70 miles.
25. Tartary the great: Holland's interpolation.
26. Mithridates: the Iberian Mithridates, not the Pontic. See Tacitus Annals VI.32 and following.
27. Sceaceriges: thus old editions. Sc. Setheries Hardouin: "Unde Sceaceriges Plinii editores hauserint, aut qu vi ingenii excuderint, non video. MSS. certe proxime appellati, Setheries legunt".
28. 88 miles: 88 and one half, says Pliny.
29. Spake before: in Book IV, Sect. 78 (Latin, IV.78).
30. Mæotici: Holland has Moeotici, but that is a mistake (although the distinction between æ and œ is indifferently followed in printing of the 17th century). This list is in any case problematic; Holland follows the emendations of Hermolaus out of Ptolemy.
31. from whence....husbands: Holland's edition has unde Amazonum conubia, a reading found in most editions until the Broterus of 1779; it seems to have originated in the Beroaldi (1476) and was adopted by both Dalechamps and Hardouin.
32. Evazæ...Turcæ: there are numerous textual problems in this list of names. See (for instance) the annotations in the edition of Mayhoff. (Thussegeræ, however, is Holland's mistake or a typo for Thussegetae.)
33. The seas end: Holland's interpolation. Tzetzes compares the Scythian name to the Greek, which he derives from μαιευτρία, midwife.
34. Great town: "Tanais town" (Τάναις πόλις, says Ptolemy, Geography, Book III, Chapter 5. Probably Azov, although modern Azov is approximately 15 miles from the modern mouth of the Don.
35. Lares: Holland's mistake for Cares.
36. Napaeae: following the emendation of Hermolaus (accepted by Dalechamps), who, collating §50, writes "Napaeas". Hardouin corrects to Napitas, following Stephanus.
37. Joyning upon the Colchi...Corax: reading with Dalechamps "ac montium"; probably something more like "on the heights of the mountains": supraque Essedonas Colchis iunctos montium cacuminibus. "Corax" is Holland's interpolation.
38. Camaces ... Ascoranes: again, there are textual variants in this list of tribes or peoples. Consult a good Latin edition. In particular, Holland's Anticae (following Hermolaus's Antacas, usually Autacas) gives a very odd flavor to the list.
39. Caucadians: thus editions prior to 1851. Most modern editions read Cauthadas. Again, textual variants in all these lists should be consulted in a good Latin edition if you're really interested in who these people are (or were, or might have been).
40. Aparthenos: or (the less interesting) Apartaeos.
41. Suites: following editions prior to Hardouin's, suitas; sc. Scyt[h]as.
42. Opharius: or Ocharius.
43. Domitius Corbulo: under Nero; see Tacitus Ann. 13.8 ff. (through Book 14).
44. Said before: in Book V, Sect. 83 (Latin V.lxxxiii). 1601 has Euprates, corrected in 1634 and 1635 to Euphrates.
45. Mountains of Arabia called Orei: this to translate "Arabes Or[r]o[e]i"(!).
46. Musis: or Usis, as most mss. have it.
47. Asia: sc. Aza.
48. Arsamole: thus all the editions of Holland's translation; either a typo or Holland's misreading for Arsamote or Arzamote of the editions he was using. Emended in modern editions to Arsamosata from Ptolemy V,6.10 and Tacitus: Annales XV.10.
49. citie Tigranocerta, ... Artaxara: this comma should probably be a semicolon, unless Holland is trying to cover both sides of a fence he's built for himself.
50. Barbarous names: Strabo lists a number of them, XI.14. (The comment on "setting them down in writing" is Holland's.)
51. Meet and convenient place: In Sect. 36.
52. Partedori: or Parihedri, or Paryadrus, etc. Dalechamps (and Chifflet) Partedoros, but cf. sect. 25, where Holland has Pariedri .
53. Employed only in mines of gold: an interpretation; this isn't exactly what Pliny says; rather, "these nations are wild, but they nevertheless mine gold".
54. Inhabitable: we (or most of us) would now write "uninhabitable".
55. Written before: in Book IV (Latin, IV.89-91).
56. Arnupheæ: thus all editions. Sc. Arimphæi. Apparently a typo or misreading of Holland's; I have been unable to find a reading like this elsewhere.
** At this day, the Moschovites, white & black Russians, Georgians, Amazonians, & the lesse Tartarie.
57. Cissianthi: or possibly Cissi, Anthi (that is, two nations).
58. Nero: see Suetonius Life of Nero, chap. 19.
59. Resemblance to that in Greece: i.e., to Macedonia.
60. Or Ninive: Holland's explanatory interpolation.
61. Phausia...: Reading (more or less) with Hermolaus, "Phausia, Aganzua." Editions prior to 1851 have "Rhaphane", now (usually) "Rhagiane". (Everyone agrees on "Apamea" or "Apamia", Strabo Ἀπάμεια.)
62. 38 miles: Modern editions, following Hardouin, read 28 miles.
63. Paredoni: thus (or variants) the mss. Pintianus suggests παρ᾽ ὁδὸν, to which Hardouin objects "voce hic nihil significante"; notwithstanding, Mayhoff follows Pintianus.
64. 220 miles: thus Chifflet, Dalechamps, other editions; some editions have 225 miles.
65. Zapanortene: the mss all read Apavortene; Hardouin "Justinus mox laudandus, Zapavortene, quod et in Dalecamp. legitur" [following Hermolaus]. n for v (or u) seems to be Holland's misreading (a typical one), or a typo, and is thus in all editions.
66. Daricum: again a Holland misreading of the Hermolaus/Dalechamps reading Darieum; the majority of manuscripts (and editions) read Dareium.
Or rather Seleucia. [Holland is riding the fence; there are textual problems here, for which see a good edition of Pliny.]
67. Orodes: or Hyrodes; see Plutarch, Life of Crassus. It seems that the Parthian blood is still much in evidence in the region, if a fondness for decapitation is a heritable trait.
68. Ochanes ... Matiani: as may be thought, there are many variant readings in this list. See a good scholarly edition.
69. Achaias: sc. Achaida.
70. Altars and columns: see Solinus; Lucianus in Baccho; Festus Avienus in Descr. Orb. (p. 835, 130) ("Hic adstare procul Bacchi fert fama columnas...", "Oceani Eoi praetento denique Bacchus Littore", etc.); Polyaenus, Strateg. lib. VIII; Curtius.
71. Demonax: Thus the Basil edition of Gelenius (1554). Most manuscripts Demoas; most editions, Demodamas, from Pliny's entry in the Index (chapter I) and from Solinus.
72. Arimaspi beforetime called Cacidiri: as often in these lists, there are many variant readings. Here Holland (or Holland's text) reads something like Arimaspi antea Cacidiri. Modern editions usually make these two tribes, Arimaspi, Antacati.
73. Napæans and Apellæans: reading Napæi interisse dicuntur, et Apellæi; most modern editions, Napaei interisse dicuntur a Palaeis, quite a different thing.
74. Icarus: Editions prior to Mayhoff read Icarum; the majority of manuscripts, iachrum. Mayhoff emends to Bactrum (citing § 48 and Ritter, Asien II, 560).
75. Tazata ... thither shipping ... there arrive: thus the editions of Holland's day, which read ...vulgata una maxime Tazata a Caspio mari Scythicoque oceano in eam cursus inflectitur..., where "in eam" should probably be in Eoum and Tazata may be Zazata.
76. Shine againe: Holland for once is understating this small tirade of Pliny's; traluceat, not literally shine in them, but shine through them. Cf. Seneca, de Benef. VII.x.1-5: "Video sericas vestes, si vestes vocandae sunt, in quibus nihil est, quo defendi corpus, aut denique pudor possit: quibus sumptis, mulier parum liquido nudam se non esse jurabit: haec ingenti summa ab ignotis etiam ad commercium gentibus accersuntur, ut matronae nostrae ne adulteris quidem plus sui in cubiculo, quam in publico ostendat".
Even at this day they set abroad their wares with the prices, upon the shore, and goe their waies: then the forain merchants come and lay down the money, and have away the merchandise: and so depart without any communication at all.
77. Carabi: thus all editions up to Hardouin. Sc. Cambari.
78. Lanos ... Attaci: This is all wrong. First, Holland follows the punctuation of the editions of his day ("praepostera", says Hardouin, and it is indeed peculiar); this renders his translation, though mostly faithful to his source, most unfaithful to Pliny and to good sense as well. Second, Holland misreads Attanos for Atianos. Third, he has skipped a phrase. Finally, Attaci, although a reasonable sight translation, should be Attacori or Attacores, as Holland has it a few sentences later: Attacorum for Attacorarum. (Hie thee to the Latin.)
79. Thyrians, Tocharians: following the reading of Gelenius. Thyrians should most probably be Phunians (or following Hardouin, Phrurians); see a scholarly edition of the Latin.
80. Casirians ... mans flesh: Holland's reading is strange. More likely it is the Casirians of India, lying toward the Scythians, who (all of them) eat human flesh.
81. That sea: reading with early editions non eo tantum mari adiacens, unlikely on grammatical grounds; more probably, the sea Eous.
82. 2750 myles: the reading in Dalechamps. Most editions, 2850 miles.
83. 3003, 2003: the text has 3300 and 2300 (or 1300, depending on the edition).
84. Nine: "perinde ac si subintelligi millia oporteat, ex superioribus repentenda. Quod quidem Solinus existimavit, locum hunc transcribens : 'Tradunt ergo in India, inquit, fuisse quinque millia oppidorum præcipua capacitate, populorum novem millia.' " And thus Mayhoff, VIIII.
85. 154 kings... 5402 ... and three months: or 153 kings. (Mayhoff's apparatus says that editions before the 1851 Hamburg have 154, but I do not believe that is accurate.) 5402 is a typo or misreading for 6402, which may in fact be 6451, as in Solinus (Arrian may have written 6042). The addition of three months sounds pure Gilbert-and-Sullivan, but it's what Pliny wrote, and Solinus dutifully tags along.
86. Parts of Caucasus: This is a misunderstanding of the text; "[a] quibus tota", "from which the country of India descends...".
87. Set down alreadie: in Sect. 44, 133 miles.
88. 562 miles: as often in the case of figures, it is best to consult a standard Latin edition. The number here is probably 575; Hermolaus and some early editions have 565, which is easy to read as 562, but I have not seen an edition that actually has 562. Readings of the passages that follow vary from edition to edition, as do the numbers; consult a Latin edition.
89. Some copies: This comment really is in Pliny and is not an addition of Holland's. The problem is an old one.
90. Chepta: thus old editions; correct to Copheta, with some of the manuscripts (and Hardouin); Pencolaitis: a combination of textual variants and Holland's (or his printer's) apparent inability to distinguish u's from n's: Peucolaitis (cf. Arrian) or Peucolatis.
91. Tapila: sc. Taxila (with Gelenius) or Taxilla. It is not clear where Holland got Tapila (not to me, anyway), but thus all editions of Holland's translation.
92. 4900, or 3900: or neither. XXIX CCCXC (or variants).
93. to: Holland has "so", but that seems to make little sense.
94. Ghisiotoagi: presumably Holland's typo for Chisiotosagi (other readings are Chirotosagi, Cyrothosagi, etc.).
95. Brachmanæ: or Bragmanae. Not modern-day Brahmans.
96. Canucha, Vama: reading with the editions of his day something like Canucam, Vamam instead of Condochatem (or something like it); cf. Arrian d.r. Ind. 4,3.
97. Nilus: Thus all editions of Holland. Read instead Ganges.
98. Parthalis: or Pertalis. The Bengal.
99. 80000: published editions had 70,000 until Hardouin corrected it out of the manuscripts and Solinus; I'm not certain where Holland got 80,000. Read 60,000.
100. Where standth the stately cittie Molinda: Holland accepts the reading of editions of his day, ubere cum oppido eiusdem nominis magnifico, "quod Latinae aures vix ferant", notes Hardouin, changing it to Uberae cum....
101. 3000 horse, 400 elephants: or 4000 horse and possibly 4000 elephants.
102. A 1000 Elephants: 1601 has "a 100 Elephants", which is changed to "100 Elephants" in 1634. But the Latin text has 1000; possibly Holland wrote "a thousand elephants" and his printer changed it to "a 1000 Elephants" to save room (the printed line is very crowded) and then misprinted "a 100", which was "corrected" in subsequent editions.
103. Beton: Baeton, "sed fefellit Baetonem astronomica ratio", says Hardouin.
104. Dromosa: Holland's misreading or misprint for Dramasa; Mayhoff corrects to Diamasa, citing Bohlen d. alte Indien II, p. 211 (Das alte Indien, mit besonderer Rücksicht auf Aegypten, by Peter von Bohlen, 2 vol., 1830).
105. Cyrisoborca: Hardouin emends to Clisobora following Arrian; Mayhoff, to Chrysobora following Bohlen (p. 232).
106. Sandus: or Sindus, or possibly Sinthus.
107. Caliugon: all editions of Holland have Caliugon, Holland's or his printer's misreading for Calingon.
108. 725 miles: thus Pliny editions until Hardouin, who corrects to 625.
109. Cesti and Celiboni: Cesi (or Caesi) and Cetriboni (or Caetriboni). I do not know where Holland got his versions of these names, unless simple misreading.
110. Asangæ: or Asmagi.
111. Wild hills: It's likely that the 625 miles of the previous sentence in fact belong to this one; that is, "This country is surrounded by mountains and wilderness. 625 miles into the wilderness (solitudines) you come upon...".
112. It perhaps need not be said that the names on this list vary (as does the number of tribes mentioned). Consult a good Latin edition.
113. Horata: or Thorace, Thoraca, Horaca, etc.
114. Deep Fosses full of standing water: this translation seems to miss Pliny's point: the fosses are marshy and full of crocodiles (not necessarily deep).
115. Thirtie great townes: not thirty, but three hundred.
¶ Babul. [The note is missing in 1601, although the text referent is there; supplied from 1634 and 1635.]
116. Beyond them, the Uri and Sileni: Reading with Hermolaus ab his uri. Detlefsen, out of Arrian, Abisari, Silae, making them two more of the previous list.
117. Amandra, Amandria: or Amanda.
118. Apple trees and other fruitfull trees: translating "pomorumque omnium", not necessarily apple trees.
119. Gold and silver: cf Pomponius Mela, de Chor. III, 60: Ad Tamum [promontorium est quod Taurus attolit] insula est Chryse: ad Gangen Argyre. Altera aurei soli (ita Veteres tradidere), altera argentei: atque ita, ut maxime videtur, aut ex re nomen aut ex vocabulo ficta fabula est."
120. Toralliba: or Coralliba.
121. Palaeogoni: that is, "old ones", "ancients","people who've dwelt there forever", or something along those lines.
122. 700: Aelian, Hist. anim. XVI.17, says 750.
123. The editions of Holland's days omitted the phrase magnitudo ad terna millia amphorum, so that Holland (reasonably enough) doesn't translate it.
124. Palesimundum: thus Dalechamps and one of the manuscripts; Palaesimundum.
125. 270: A mistake for the reading of 275 (Dalechamps and others), but should be 375 in any case.
126. Colaicum: thus early editions; sc. Coliacum.
127. Mountains: this peculiar and nearly incomprehensible translation is the result of the odd pointing of Holland's source; "ultra montes Hemodos" surely belongs with the next phrase, not with this one. "Enodi" seems to be a simple mistake.
128. Hermandus ... Arachosians: Or "Erymandus, running past Parabestes, a city of the Arachosians". Holland's source text reads praefluens per Abesten, but Hardouin points out the similar construction a little later, Arius amnis qui praefluit Alexandriam.
129. Town of Cadrusi: Hardouin argues that this cannot be the proper reading, repointing the text: .... Cadrusi: oppidum ab Alexandro conditum: that is, the Cadrusians are the people, and Alexandria is their city.
130. Coast of Indus: Holland's text reads Infra haec omnia ora ab Indo Ariana region ambusta fervoribus etc.; Mayhoff emends to infra haec omnia planiora. etc., citing the beginning of this section and comparing the middle of sect. 78, "iam in plana demisso tractu" etc.
131. Dorisci: or possibly Dorsigi.
132. Argetae: thus early editions; correct to Evergetae out of Strabo XV.2.10.
133. Borru: or Boru, or Horu, or Eorus.
134. Ponamus: Hardouin, Pomanus.
135. Ceberon ... Sorares: thus Hermolaus; sc. Cabirus, Suares.
136. 1950: or 1800 (or, according to other editions, 1850 or 1400). The units are not specified.
137. Ichthyophagi: Modern editions usually move this sentence to follow just after the sentence that mentions Ichthyophagi, that is, in Holland's translation, just before "And beyond it you meet with the people of the Arbians".
138. Nabrus: Or Arbis.
139. Argenus: or more probably Argevus.
140. Tuberum: or Tonberum, among other variants.
141. Parites: it's not clear whence Holland got this. Sc. Pasirae; variants, Parirae, Perirae, etc. (It is not uncommon for Holland to misread a "t" for an "r", and vice versa.)
142. 20 daies: or, more likely, 30. Mayhoff refers us to Müller, ad Geographos Graecos minores, and to the 1851 Hamburg edition, but the suggestion had been made in earlier editions
143. Bed of the nimphs : Nympharum Cubile (or cubile Nympharum): Hardouin explicates, "Oceanitidum. Nereidum unam hic habitasse scribit Arrianus in Indicis, pag. 570, quicumque eo appulissent solitam in mare projicere". Hmm. Island of the Sun: Solis, "haec Soli sacra insula, quam proprio nomine Νόσαλα appellatam esse auctor est Arrianus in Indicis".
144. Pomponius Mela, de Chorographia III 61 (cap. 7, page. 59) suggests a reason of a sort: "Contra Indi ostia illa sunt quae vocant Solis adeo inhabitabilia, ut ingressos vis circumfusi aeris exanimet confestim, et inter ipsa ostia Patalene regio, ob aestus intolerabilis alicubi cultoribus egens."
145. Sardaracha: thus all editions. Presumably a typo for Sandaracha, in the sense of red arsenic, arsenic disulphide, red orpiment, realgar.
146. Vermillion: rendering the Latin minium.
147. Organa: thus the editions Holland is using. On variants, see a scholarly edition of Pliny. O[a]racta seems the most likely.
148. Phirstimus: or Phristimus. Hardouin emends to Heratemis, citing Arrian in Ind., 38.2. Ἡράτεμις.
149. Oroatus: thus Hermolaus out of Strabo, XV.3.1. Zarotis, the manuscripts (and Hardouin).
150. River Zizerus: reading Zigerum amnem portum ("absurde", says Hardouin).
151. 95: or 85.
¶¶ So as it appeareth that every daies journey was about 32 miles. [234: or 236; the editions vary, 236, 230, 233.]
152. Cama: thus Holland. Sc. (with the mss) Cana or Cane, Ptolemy's Κάνη.
153. Saba: Holland supplies the name; the text has only incense-bearing region.
154. Hydrae: thus editions up to Hardouin, who emends to Nitrias out of Ptolemy, Νιτρίας έμπόριον.
155. Cotona: thus the Basel edition of 1525 (and others). Cottonara.
156. Beginning of December ... Tybis: this is surely wrong: read "the beginning of Tybis, our December". Tybis began on the 27th of December.
157. Machiris...January: Mechiris began about the 26th of January. Pliny does not write "before the ides of January", but rather intra idus Ianuarius nostras. The 6th day of Mechiris would be the 31st of January, and ingenious explanations of this passage are not lacking. (Why Holland has Machiris for the Mechiris or Maechiris of most editions is another mystery.)
158. Andaius: Holland's error for Andanis, itself an emendation by Hermolaus out of Ptolemy; the text has Ananim, Arrian Anamis, Pomponius Mela Sandis.
159. Amuzia: sc. Armuzia. Presumably a typo.
160. Is Arabia: 1601 has "in Arabia", which makes no sense. 1634 "corrects" this by adding some punctuation, although it still makes little sense: "over against this gulfe, in Arabia (which lieth in length 1200 miles) on the other side another arme there is of it called the Arabian gulfe)". 1635 follows 1634. The Latin is perfectly clear: "ex adverso est Arabia, cuius |XII| [or |XV|] longitudo, rursus altero ambitur sinu Arabico nominato".
161. 402: thus some manuscripts. Or 412, or 421.
162. Themisceas: I am not sure where Holland got this, if it is not a typo; thus all editions. Read Themisteas.
163. Philos: or Psilos, "quasi glabram incultamque dixeris insulam".
164. Aratia: for Aracia, Hermolaus's reading. Or Aracha.
165. The very kingdome : "ipsa Persis"; 450: not sure where Holland gets this; all editions seem to read the same, |DL|.
166. Before said: in sect. 41.
167. Medes: all editions of Holland have Modes; again, I have not tracked down this reading. It may be another typo.
168. Issaris: a typo or misreading for Issatis. (In fact, 1601 may have, and 1634 and 1635 definitely have, Islaris.) Cf. sect. 44 ("whereof we have written before").
169. Europum: thus Hermolaus out of Ptolemy. Or Pyropum.
170. Mania: or Maria.
171. Cyropolis, Elymais, Megala: Thus Hermolaus. Mayhoff, Ceribobus, Climax Megale; other readings include Syrtibolos, etc.
172. Passagarda: Thus Hermolaus. Or Frasargida, Phrasargida, etc.
173. Which: the fort, not the sages, although they presumably went with.
174. Spake before: in Book V, sect. Sect. 86 (Latin, V.lxxxvi).
175. Aroei: or Orei, or Orroei. See footnote 45.
176. Aloni: or Azoni, according to some editors. The Azones and Silices of the next sentence then become (probably) the Azones Silices, one people, with silices to distinguish them from the other Azones, the Silices presumably mountains. (A question of comma or no comma.) See also note 178 and the text there.
177. Sue: or Suae. Hardouin: "שוע Sue Chaldæis rupem sonat, ut aiunt."
178. Sylici and Classitae: readings vary here, but the "and" is Holland's and is almost certainly wrong, although possible; Mayhoff "supra Silicas Sitrae".
179. Absitris: thus the mss. The 1507 edition of Alexander Benedict emends to ab Sitris, and Mayhoff, following Detlefsen, adopts this reading. It would (probably) be a river or stream, in Holland's reading.
180. Posytelia: Holland or his typesetter has misread an "el" as a (long) "ess"; sc. Polytelia.
181. Already said: in Book V, sect. 68; as also Apamia in the next sentence.
182. 65 stadia: a mistake for 70 (LXX, not LXV).
183. 250 miles: thus all early editions. Read LL·CC, about 50.2 miles.
184. Said before: in Book V, Sect. 89.
¶¶¶ Or rather, Nahal Nalca, i. the kings river. [Hardouin: "In Plinianis libris corrupta hæc vox existimatur" -- although it's Narmalcan in one manuscript, but onwards: "Armalchar; quum Naarmalcha scribi ex Chaldaico נהרםלכא doceant cæteri scriptores. Nam Isidorus Characenus in Στραϑμοῖς, pag. 186, Ναρμάλχαν vocat. Ammianus, lib. XXIV[.7], p. 266, de Euphrate: 'Pars fluminis scinditur largis aquarum agminibus, ducens ad tractus Babylonios interiores,... alia Naarmalcha nomine, quod fluvius regum interpretatur, Ctesiphontem prætermeat.' Et pag. 278: 'Ventum est hinc ad fossile flumen, Naarmalcha nomine, quod amnis regum interpretatur, tunc aridum.' Ptolemæus, lib. V, cap. 18 Βασίλειον ποταμὸν: Polybius, lib. V, pag. 551, Βασιιλικὴν διώρυχα vocat. Tamen quum Assyria lingua diversa ab Hebræa sit, nihil mutamus, quamvis Narmalchan in MS. Reg. 2, et Elz. legatur." Indeed.]
185. Babylon's walls: confusion confounded. Cf. Herodotus, I.178 and the less than helpful note there. Hardouin notes that the Babylonian foot was 19 inches ("digitis"), while the Roman was 12.
186. Standeth entire: or maybe not. According to Hardouin, "Tamen Diodorus Siculus, [II. pag. 97 and 98] vetuste jam tum ævo suo [a generation or two before Pliny] collapsum testatur: a Semiramide conditum scribit: a Nabuchodonosore, alii: instauratum ab Alexandro M. dum Babylone ageret, ex Hectæo Josephus adversus Apionem".
187. Vologeso Certa: cf. Carcathiocerta and Tigranocerta, sect. 26.
188. Naragam: Readings vary in this passage (and they make a difference to the meaning); see a scholarly edition of Pliny. But it seems unlikely that Naragon or Naragum gave its name to Hipparenum; Hardouin, "subintellige alteri, nempe Narragae".
189. Hypparenum: Pliny says that the Persians destroyed the walls; he does not say that they destroyed the city.
190. Graeciophants: Holland portmanteaus one of the readings, Graecichartes, with the name of the previous tribe to come up with this one. The likely candidates are Gnesiochartae and Graeciochartes.
191. 175 miles: or, in some readings, 175 and a half.
192. 1200 miles: some editions of Pliny have 1100.
193. Scoenes and Parasanges: Persian units of measurement; the Egyptians used the schoenos as well. See as well Book XII, sect. 53, where a schoeno is said to be either 32 or 40 stadia.
194. Whereas...going to and fro: It's difficult to see how Holland pulled this elaborate sentence out of the Latin, quite clear at this point, but there it is, and, once parsed, it's accurate.
195. We said: in Book 5, -->sect. 87 (Latin, V.87).
196. 527 miles: thus most older editions of Pliny; probably 529.
197. Elongosine: thus editions prior to Hardouin, who corrects to Elegosine out of manuscripts and Solinus.
198. Diglito: Διγλάθ. Cf. Josephus, Ant. Jud. I.i.3, "Now the name Euphrates, or Phrath, denotes either a dispersion, or a flower: by Tigris, or Diglath, is signified what is swift, with narrowness; and Geon runs through Egypt, and denotes what arises from the east, which the Greeks call Nile."
199. Shaft: that is, an arrow. Cf. Q. Curt. IV.9.16.
200. Arethusam: thus the Cologne edition of 1524, and most subsequent editions until the mid-nineteenth century. The manuscripts have Aretissam.
201. Parthenis, Agnice and Pharion: thus the editions of Holland's day, for the manuscript Parthenius, ac Nicephorione.
202. Arabians and Troeans: that is, the Orroean Arabs; cf. footnotes 45 and 176. I am not sure where Holland got the T; the comma that produced the "and" is by Dalechamps.
203. As we have said: in sect. 122.
204. Whereof we have spoken: in sect. 129.
205. Dibitach: readings vary. Mayhoff Dabitha.
206. 480 miles: thus printed editions of Pliny until Hardouin's; sc. 380.
207. Babytace: thus corrected out of Stephanus; most of the manuscripts, Barbitace (or a variant thereof).
208. Bury it: for fear, says Solinus, lest it corrupt them.
209. Cossæans: thus Hermolaus; sc. Oxi or Oxii, with the manuscripts.
210. Abovesaid: in sect. 111.
211. Aphle: thus all printed editions of Pliny before the mid-nineteenth century; Aple, say modern editors. 65 miles and a half: readings vary from 62.5, 60.5, 65.5 (and one manuscript has an outlier, 560).
212. Mesobatene: Or Massabatene. See a scholarly edition of Pliny.
213. Hedypnos: or Hedyphos, following Strabo XVI.1.18, “Ἡδυφῶντι”.
214. One more out of the Susianes countrey: reading "et unam" (or "et unum"), found in most of the old print editions of Pliny, for "Adunam" of the manuscripts; restored by Hardouin.
215. Two mountains, Taurus and Caucasus: most printed editions of Pliny read Tauro, Caucaso until the mid-nineteenth century; modern editions usually have Tauro Caucasio.
216. Three miles: or two.
217. 125 miles: This seems to be Holland's error; all editions have 120.
218. Said earlier: in Book III, Section 2.
219. Before said: in Book V, 85.
220. Showed: in Book V, 65. Ægyptian: "Nubean" in the text.
221. 122 miles: thus printed editions of Pliny prior to Hardouin, who corrects to 135.
222. Semiramis: Pliny has Samiramis.
223. Abesanius: it is difficult to conjecture how Holland pulled this out of any of the various readings of Pliny's text here: read Absesamis or Abæsamis.
224. Caracins or Zarasins: Pliny's Characeni
225. Twelve miles...Tigris and Euphrates: these two sentences (the first nearly incomprehensible) are the result of the pointing of most older editions of Pliny, which have "XII M. passum secundo æstu navigant. E Parthico autem regno" etc.
226. Salt, brackish water: "flumen Salsum", writes Pliny: whether just the name, or the name and the water too.
227. Salt mineral: "salt", says Pliny. Strabo XVI.3.3 adds that the houses too were made of salt, presumably mineral salt: ἄλινας τὰς οἰκίας.
228. Asgilia: thus printed editions of Pliny until the 19th century, following a suggestion of Chifflet; Ascliae.
229. Caius: Holland's mistake for Canis, possibly the same river as Cynos above.
230. And so forward: Mayhoff indicates a lacuna just before this.
231. Columnes or pillers: "stelae lapideae", says Pliny.
232. Garphets: Hardouin omits this phrase.
233. Darrae: Hardouin notes "Stephanus: Δάῤῥαι ἔϑνος πρὸς τῇ ἐρυϑρᾷ θαλάσσῃ, Darrhæ, populi juxta mare Rubrum. A Ptolomæo præpostere locantur in Arabico sinu."
234. 112 miles: or 112 and a half. Mayhoff says that two editions of his day (roughly) omit the "D" "errore"; so too do many earlier editions.
235. Antarides: Holland's mistake for Autaridae; Hardouin, Ausaritae.
236. Acchitae: thus Hermolaus out of Ptolemy: wrongly, says Hardouin, "Prius Acchitae perperam legebatur: quod tamen secutus est Ortelius: qui Plinii Ascitas cum Ἀγχίταις Ptolemæi et nomine perperam, et situ confundit", correcting to Ascitae; Mayhoff, Actaei.
237. Sobotale: thus early editions. Sc. Sabota; cf. Book XII sect. 63.
238. Nariaba: Holland's error for Mariaba. Mayhoff Marebbata.
239. Siby: thus the edition Holland seems to be relying on mostly, the 1524 Cologne edition (and Dalechamps), for the more usual Sibi.
240. Arsicodani and Vadei, with a great towne: thus Dalechamps. Μore probably, Arsi, Codani, and Vadei, a great towne (D. "Arsicodani, Vadei, cum oppido magno"; most editions, "Arsi, Codani, Vadei oppido magno").
241. 4870 miles: readings in the printed editions of Pliny vary.
242. Sarracenes: thus Hermolaus for the textual Ar[r]aceni.
243. Principal town is Arra ... merchants: there are textual difficulties here; see a critical edition of Pliny.
244. Hemnates: Mayhoff says that editions prior to the 1851 read Hemuatae. Either he is incorrect, or Holland (or his copysetter) misread the u for n common enough for Holland, and in this case a happy misreading. Mayhoff (and other editors) read Avalites for Analites. On the variant readings of the names of their towns, see a critical edition of Pliny.
245. Bacasmani ... barley: sc. Bacascami. The reading may rather "Riphearma a town of the Bacascami". "Vocabulo", says Harduoin, "prorsus barbaro, quod nec Hebræos fontes, nec Arabicos sapit: uti et ea quæ proxime sequitur, Emischabales." (Leaving aside the apparent absurdity of calling a "fons" an "oppidum".) Numbers and names in all this part of the book vary widely from edition to edition; again, consult a good critical edition.
246. Venison: "wild game", says Pliny. Artemidorus says "camels' milk and meat"; cf. Columella de Re Rustica VII cap. 2.
247. Another book: in book XII.
248. Seven miles: or seven and a half miles.
249. 1300 miles: or 1200 miles.
250. 1450 ... 1182: again, readings vary. The sentence Artemidorus...fifty: belongs with Chap. XXVIII in the chapter numbering scheme that Holland is following. The number that Holland reproduces as 462 in the next sentence should be either 472 or 475, depending on the edition.
251. Two miles: the phrase is found in (maybe) one manuscript and thence in most print editions up to the 19th century; Mayhoff removes it, leaving "A second beginneth beyond the mountain...".
252. Taduos: sc. Tadnos; a typical Holland mistake of u for n. (Variants include Statnos, Tatnos, etc.).
253. Lambe: sc. Iambe; again, a Holland typo or misreading.
254. With the addition: addition, that is, to the name Berenice, as a cognomen: Berenice Panchrysos, "Golden Berenice".
255. Four and a half miles: Hardouin and later editors, 7-1/2; cf. sect. 163.
256. In Book II: in sect. 183.
257. 600 miles: 602 miles, writes Pliny; Mayhoff questions whether it may not be 602.5 miles, referring us to Book II.
258. Egyptian slaves: i.e., slaves of the Egyptians. Aduliton: i.e., Ἀδουλιτῶν = a city of the Ἀδούλη; there seem to have been three such cities. Stephanus, Ἄδουλις, πόλις Αἰϑιόπων.
259. Put the Egyptians to them: this peculiar phrase is meant to translate etiam Æthiopum: this is the greatest market town of the Troglodytes, and indeed of the Ethiopians.
260. Sea-horse hides: i.e., hippopotamus, not the skins of tiny fish.
261. Aliaea: sc. Aliaeu (or variants thereon).
262. Stratonis: reading with Hermolaus out of Strabo XVI.4.8 for the textual Stratioton.
263. Curios: Holland's mistake for Cutios, itself a doubtful reading for Cucios. Hardouin, however, points to Strabo XVI.4.9, Κορακίου χώραν: An Coracios? he asks.
264. Baradaza: thus Holland; sc. Baragaza (or Bargaza, etc.).
265. Salmasius in his Exercitiones proposes an ingenious solution to this seemingly odd statement. It involves reconstructing the text of Juba and then making Pliny misread it (reading ΓΑΔΕΙΡΗΣ ΣΤΕΝΑ for ΤΑ ΔΕΙΡΗΣ ΣΤΕΝΑ). But probably we need not go so far, as we can make sense of the statement on its face, with a few assumptions.
266. Never reckon: reading the name Exustam as an adjective exhaustum (and praeter as "without" rather than beyond or past).
267. Island Sadanum: reading with most early editions insulam Sadanum for the more likely insulas Adanu.
268. 1885 miles: thus Holland and some editions, although the total is of course 1875.
269. Description of Egypt: in Book V, sect. 61 (Latin V.61).
270. Heliopolis: cf. Isidore XV.1.31, who says it was built by the Israelites during their captivity. The two statements are of course not exclusive.
271. Thatice: all editions of Holland have Thatire, clearly a mistake.
272. Nasandum: Thus Holland for Nasaudum, another case of reading n for u; a better reading is Nasardum.
273. Anadoma...: Pliny's text at this point is something of a mess; consult a good critical edition. Holland adds his own mistakes.
274. Ethiopians: cf. Dio 63.8.2, Seneca, Quaest. Nat. VI.8.3.
275. Publius Petronius: Gaius, says Dio, 54.5.4
276. Egyptians, Ethiopia: cf. Herodotus II.110.1; Strabo, XVII.5
277. Andromeda: see also Book V, sect. 69. "Fabulous tales" = fabulae, "common stories" (not necessarily with the connotations of the English "fabulous"). Cepheus bore the cognomen of Æthiopia; cf. Ovid, Metam. IV, 668-669: "gentibus innumeris circumque infraque relictis / Aethiopum populos Cepheaque conspicit arva".
278. 1270: this reading is found in the Basel edition of 1554; most editions have 1250.
279. 874 miles: following Pintianus Observationes. The readings vary here (as often when there is a V at the end of numbers): 875, 874, 872, 876, etc. For variants on the distances in the following text, see a critical edition of Pliny.
280. First of all the Ethiopians: reading with 1524 and some early editions "regionem Evonymiton Æthiopum primam"; manuscripts have primi (cf. sect. 179 where Holland has "Primmis" and sect. 182 where Holland has Primis for a town in the region).
281. Gagandus: A Holland misreading of n for u: sc. Gagaudus.
282. Only little town: It alone survives, a small town; the others have been destroyed in the wars (probably: "oppidum id parvum inter praedicta solum").
283. Ætheria: Gellius (Noctes Atticae: XIV.6) says that Egypt (and Crete too) was once called "Aeria". Hardouin: "Αερίαν dictam esse olim Æthiopiam auctor est Hesychius, verbo Αερία: ab eo fortassis tempore, quo Ægyptus imperitavit Æthiopiæ, ut superius dictum est: nam et Ægypto ipsi inditum id nomen fuisse, auctor est, præter alios, Gellius".
284. Hence, says Agatharchides, they are known as Ελεφαντοφάγοι Αἰϑέοπες, reasonably enough. Tents and tabernacles, here as elsewhere, is Holland's addition to explain nomades; the word nomad was rare in English before the 19th century.
285. Mesagebes, Hippores, who be all over black...: Mayhoff emends this passage to read "Mesaches; hi pudore atri coloris tota corpora rubrica inlinunt". (Holland of course follows the old reading but allows a causal connection as well.)
286. Phalanges: thus Dalechamps; sc. Phalliges.
287. Navectabe, Cumi, Agrospi,: or possibly, reading with some editors Navectabe cum agro Psegipta, "Navectabe and the territory Psegipta".
288. Bion moreover affirmeth...: this is a peculiar translation, although defensible, except for the "clime of the heaven" part, (where it would seem Holland has mistaken Syrtis the place(s) for Syrtus the constellation and Nili for Coeli? It hardly seems possible, even reading a black-letter edition) and for the fact that Dalion is mentioned as a person who passed "farre beyond Meroë" (in sect. 183 just above). Read with the (flat) translation of the Loeb edition: "On that side of the Nile which extends along the borders of the Southern Ocean beyond the Greater Syrtes, Dalion says that the people, who use rain-water only, are called the Cisori...".
289. He telleth: translating the troublesome Dein fabulosa of the text. Hardouin emends to "Deinde sabulosa", "In confinio maris Æthiopici. Fabulosa hoc loco legi quibusdam placet: quoniam fabulis videntur affinia, quæ mox sequuntur". "The rest is desert, and then nothing but fabulous tales:" "The rest is desert, inhabited by nobody except in fairy-tales:" Take your pick (or make up your own, or accept Holland or Hardouin).
290. Pomphagi: sc. Pamphagi.
291. Cynamolgi: Agatharcides says that they milk dogs and eat the milk (or make it into food), as the name would indicate, not that they have heads like dogs. Possibly Pliny is confusing them with the cynocephali.
292. Said before: in Book V, sect. 10.
293. Prester John: it need hardly be pointed out that this is not what Pliny writes verbatim.
294. 1291: this seems to be Holland's mistake for 1296. The readings here vary, as is usual with numbers, but I haven't found a 1291.
295. 725: or 625.
296. Set down before: in sect. 184 (and note).
§ Cap. de bonne Esperance.
297. 8 miles... Coast of the sun ... even plain: Holland translates the text in front of him, which reads "VIII oram solis: vocari Convellem a convexitate et Planariam a specie" for "in VIII oram solis" (and variants of the text that follows); a measure of the longitude of the islands.
298. 75 miles: thus the Lyons edition of 1563 by error for 375 (and only that edition: hence we know which edition Holland is using, at least here, and probably through most of his translation, as that edition closely follows the Cologne edition, incorporating suggestions of Salmasius, Dalechamps, and Hermolaus as well).
299. Capraria: Salmasius suggests that this is an error of Pliny's for Sauraria (that is, that he read Caprarian for Caurari/an. But why, we may ask, would Pliny not note the apparent inconsistency, if Salmasius does?
300. Nivaria: Hermolaus's emendation, followed by most editions up to the 19th century, for the manuscripts' Ninguaria.
301. Sturgeon: "siluros".
302. reed: 1601 (and all other editions) have "red".
303. 1260 miles: here, as often when numbers are involved, there are variant readings and editorial emendations of all sorts; consult a critical edition of Pliny. Holland add a couple of errors of his own.
304. May well contain in largeness: there is a lacuna here, first pointed out by Pintianus.
305. Pelusium...Alexandria: an odd translation, just possible from the text with an addition of some liberal re-pointing.
306. Hither coast of Arabia: translating (and apparently misreading) "citeriorem Arabiam" (!).
307. Berytrus: Thus Holland for "Berytus".
308. Cyprus, the south part of Candie: reading Cypri, austrina Cretam for Cypri austrina, Cretam.
309. 17 foot: most editions after Hardouin read XVI here.
310. Anisum: Thus Holland for Amisum.
311. Euboea, Boeotia: reading (with Gelenius) Boeotia for Boeotum (and inserting a comma), thus making two places out of one.
312. Utmost coasts of Apulia: translating "Apuliae extima".
313. Vicetia, Patavium: i.e., Vicenza, Padua. Holland's habit of leaving some names in (more or less) Latin while translating others -- or a combination of both, as in "Genua" above -- might bear some small investigation. I haven't detected any particular pattern to it.
314. Dakes: that is, the Dacians (upper Hungary, Bessarabia, etc.).
315. As we said: in Book IV, sect. 104 (Latin).
316. Syrene: thus Holland for Syene.
This page is by James Eason.